America In 1916: What was Happening 100 Years Ago?

America In 1916: What was Happening 100 Years Ago?

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History is so fascinating. It is so much more than memorizing dates, and learning about dead guys. History is literally the story behind every trend, news headline, and major event that is happening right now. As we begin and look forward to this new year, let's take a few minutes to travel back in time and remember some of the most significant events that happened in America in the year 1916. These events can help us begin to tell a story of why America is the way that it is today, 100 years later.

1. The second-ever Rose Bowl was on January 1, 1916. Washington State beat Brown University 14-0.

2. The Professional Golfer Association (PGA) met for the first time in New York City on January 17, 1916. The first PGA Championship was also played this same day.


3. At the beginning of 1916, WWI was in full swing. Germany had used Zeppelins to bomb Britain before, but on January 29th, The Germans used these Zeppelins against France for the first time.


4. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presented its first concert on February 11, 1916.

5. One of the biggest battles of WWI, The Battle of Verdun, began on February 21, 1916. This battle was fought in France between the German and French armies.


6. The House-Grey Memorandum was an invitation from the U.S. to Germany to participation in a U.S.-sponsored peace convention to end World War I. It was drafted by US President Woodrow Wilson and British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey. It states: "Should the Allies accept [the American idea of a conference to end the war] and should Germany refuse it, the United States would 'probably' enter the war against Germany." This was released on February 22nd.

7. Film icon Charlie Chaplin signed a film contract with Mutual on February 26th.

8.The United States invaded Cuba for the 3rd time on March 8, 1916.

9. On March 9th, Mexican General Francisco "Pancho" Villa invaded the US in Columbus, New Mexico. Known as the 'Battle of Columbus' or 'Columbus Raid'. (18 killed).

10. The first US National Women's Swimming Championships were held on April 1, 1916.

11. After they first formed in January, The Professional Golfer's Association of America (PGA) was officially created in New York on April 10th.


12. Due to Germany's extreme tactics of maritime warfare, on April 18, 1916, the US Secretary of State warned Germany that the US may break diplomatic relations unless torpedo attacks on unarmed ships stop.

13. On April 19th, the 20th Boston Marathon was won by Arthur Roth of Massachusetts with a time of 2:27:16.4.


14. Weeghman Park, (now known as Wrigley Field) opened in Chicago on April 20, 1916.



15. On April 24th, the Easter Rising of Irish republicans against British occupation began in Dublin (Ended 5 days later).

16. On May 4th, at the request of the US, Germany curtailed its Submarine warfare.

17. The United Stated Marines invade the Dominican Republic on May 5, 1916 (They stayed until 1924).


18. President Wilson addressed the League to Enforce Peace (founded in 1915) and gave public support to the idea of a league of nations on May 27th.

19. On June 7th, Theodore Roosevelt declined nomination of the Progressive Party and gave his support to Republican Charles Evans Hughes.


20. The Democratic Convention convened in St Louis on June 14, 1916. Woodrow Wilson campaigned on the slogan that ''He kept out of the War''.

21. A Boeing Aircraft flew for the first time on June 29th.


22.On July 1, 1916, Coca-Cola brought its current formula to the market.


23. First cargo submarine crossed Atlantic arrives in the U.S. from Germany on July 29th.

24. On August 25h, 1916, the US Department of Interiors formed the National Park Service.



25. The first "super" market, PigglyWiggly, opened on September 6th, in Memphis, TN.

26. On September 7th, the Workmen's Compensation Act was passed by Congress

27. During the Battle of Somme, on September 15th at the Battle of Flers- Courcelette, the British debuted the use of tanks in war.


28. John D. Rockefeller became the world's first billionaire on September 29th.

29. On October 9th, Georgia Tech, coached by John Heisman, defeated Cumberland 222-0, the most lopsided score in the history of college football.


30. Woodrow Wilson was re-elected as president on November 7th. On this same day, Jeannette Rankin was elected to Congress as its first woman Representative.


31. The French defeated the Germans in the Battle of Verdun on December 15, 1916.

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College As Told By Junie B. Jones

A tribute to the beloved author Barbara Parks.
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The Junie B. Jones series was a big part of my childhood. They were the first chapter books I ever read. On car trips, my mother would entertain my sister and me by purchasing a new Junie B. Jones book and reading it to us. My favorite part about the books then, and still, are how funny they are. Junie B. takes things very literally, and her (mis)adventures are hilarious. A lot of children's authors tend to write for children and parents in their books to keep the attention of both parties. Barbara Park, the author of the Junie B. Jones series, did just that. This is why many things Junie B. said in Kindergarten could be applied to her experiences in college, as shown here.

When Junie B. introduces herself hundreds of times during orientation week:

“My name is Junie B. Jones. The B stands for Beatrice. Except I don't like Beatrice. I just like B and that's all." (Junie B. Jones and the Stupid Smelly Bus, p. 1)

When she goes to her first college career fair:

"Yeah, only guess what? I never even heard of that dumb word careers before. And so I won't know what the heck we're talking about." (Junie B. Jones and her Big Fat Mouth, p. 2)

When she thinks people in class are gossiping about her:

“They whispered to each other for a real long time. Also, they kept looking at me. And they wouldn't even stop." (Junie B., First Grader Boss of Lunch, p. 66)

When someone asks her about the library:

“It's where the books are. And guess what? Books are my very favorite things in the whole world!" (Junie B. Jones and the Stupid Smelly Bus, p. 27)

When she doesn't know what she's eating at the caf:

“I peeked inside the bread. I stared and stared for a real long time. 'Cause I didn't actually recognize the meat, that's why. Finally, I ate it anyway. It was tasty...whatever it was." (Junie B., First Grader Boss of Lunch, p. 66)

When she gets bored during class:

“I drew a sausage patty on my arm. Only that wasn't even an assignment." (Junie B. Jones Loves Handsome Warren, p. 18)

When she considers dropping out:

“Maybe someday I will just be the Boss of Cookies instead!" (Junie B., First Grader Boss of Lunch, p. 76)

When her friends invite her to the lake for Labor Day:

“GOOD NEWS! I CAN COME TO THE LAKE WITH YOU, I BELIEVE!" (Junie B. Jones Smells Something Fishy, p. 17)

When her professor never enters grades on time:

“I rolled my eyes way up to the sky." (Junie B., First Grader Boss of Lunch, p. 38)

When her friends won't stop poking her on Facebook:


“Do not poke me one more time, and I mean it." (Junie B. Jones Smells Something Fishy, p. 7)

When she finds out she got a bad test grade:

“Then my eyes got a little bit wet. I wasn't crying, though." (Junie B. Jones and the Stupid Smelly Bus, p. 17)

When she isn't allowed to have a pet on campus but really wants one:

“FISH STICK! I NAMED HIM FISH STICK BECAUSE HE'S A FISH STICK, OF COURSE!" (Junie B. Jones Smells Something Fishy, p. 59)

When she has to walk across campus in the dark:

“There's no such thing as monsters. There's no such thing as monsters." (Junie B. Jones Has a Monster Under Her Bed, p. 12)

When her boyfriend breaks her heart:

“I am a bachelorette. A bachelorette is when your boyfriend named Ricardo dumps you at recess. Only I wasn't actually expecting that terrible trouble." (Junie B. Jones Is (almost) a Flower Girl, p. 1)

When she paints her first canvas:


"And painting is the funnest thing I love!" (Junie B. Jones and her Big Fat Mouth, p. 61)

When her sorority takes stacked pictures:

“The biggie kids stand in the back. And the shortie kids stand in the front. I am a shortie kid. Only that is nothing to be ashamed of." (Junie B. Jones Has a Monster Under Her Bed, p. 7)

When she's had enough of the caf's food:

“Want to bake a lemon pie? A lemon pie would be fun, don't you think?" (Junie B. Jones Has a Monster Under Her Bed p. 34)

When she forgets about an exam:

“Speechless is when your mouth can't speech." (Junie B. Jones Loves Handsome Warren, p. 54)

When she finds out she has enough credits to graduate:

“A DIPLOMA! A DIPLOMA! I WILL LOVE A DIPLOMA!" (Junie B. Jones is a Graduation Girl p. 6)

When she gets home from college:

"IT'S ME! IT'S JUNIE B. JONES! I'M HOME FROM MY SCHOOL!" (Junie B. Jones and some Sneaky Peaky Spying p. 20)

Cover Image Credit: OrderOfBooks

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Abortion Bans Are Only A Small Part Of The Republican War On Women

These bans expose the Republican Party for what it truly is.

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This week, several states passed laws that ban abortion after six to eight weeks of pregnancy, before most women even know that they're pregnant. The most egregious of these is Alabama — the state has banned abortion except for in cases of danger to the mother. Exceptions in the cases of rape and incest were actively voted against by the state legislature. Under the new law, any doctor who is caught giving an abortion would be sentenced to 99 years in prison, and the woman would be charged with murder.

Apart from the fact that this explicitly violates the decision of Roe v. Wade (which is the point), this is only a small part of the slow but steady degradation of women's rights by Republicans in the United States. To anyone who believes that this is simply about people being "pro-life" or "saving the children," then tell them to look at what happens after the fetus is carried to term.

Republicans oppose forcing fathers to be involved in the lives of their children that were forcibly carried to term, desires to cut food stamps and make it more difficult to feed said child, cut funding for affordable housing to make it more difficult for them to find homes, cut spending to public education so these children can't move up the social ladder, and refuse to offer the woman or her child health insurance to keep them both healthy. What about efforts to prevent pregnancy? Republicans also oppose funding birth control and contraception, as well as opposing comprehensive sexual education. To them, the only feasible solution is to simply keep your legs shut. They oppose all of these things because it is, in their eyes, a violation of individual rights to force people to do something. The bill also makes women who get abortions felons, and felons can't vote. I'll let you finish putting those two together.

If you view it from this framework, it would seem like Republicans are being extremely hypocritical by violating the personal freedoms of pregnant women, but if you look at it from the view of restricting social mobility for women, then it makes perfect sense. The Republican dogma of "individual rights" and "personal responsibility" is a socially acceptable facade that they use to cover up their true intentions of protecting the status quo and protect those in power. About any Republican policy, ask yourself: does this disperse power or consolidate it? Whether it be education, healthcare, the environment, or the economy, Republicans love to keep power away from the average citizen and give it to the small number of people that they deem "deserving" of it because of their race, gender, wealth, or power. This is the case with abortion as well; Power is being taken from women, and being given back to men in a reversal of the Feminist Movement of the 1970s.

Republicans don't believe in systemic issues. They believe that everyone has the same opportunity to succeed regardless of what point they started. This is why they love capitalism so much. It acts as some sort of great filter in which only those who deserve power can make it to the top. It's also why they hate social policies; they think that helping people who can't help themselves changes the hierarchy in a negative way by giving people who don't "deserve" power, power. Of course, we know that just because you have money and power doesn't mean you earned it fair and square, and even if Republicans believe it, it wouldn't change anything because it wouldn't change how they want to distribute power.

In short, Republican policies, including abortion, leave the average American with less money, less protection, less education, worse health, less opportunity, fewer rights, and less freedom. This is NOT a side effect. This is the point. Regardless of what Republicans will tell you about "inalienable rights" and how everyone is equal, in reality, they believe that some people and groups are more deserving of rights than others, and the group that deserves rights the most are the ones "that will do the best with them." To Republicans, this group consists of the wealthy, the powerful, and the white — the mega-rich, the CEOs of large companies, gun owners and Christians.

So, who do Republicans think deserve power and give it to? People who look and think like them. This, however, begs the question: Who do they want to take it from?

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