A Brief History of Stephen Hawking

A Brief History of Stephen Hawking

The world has lost its greatest mind, but the legacy of Hawking continues on throughout the scientific community.
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Stephen Hawking died recently, after being told decades ago that he would only live another two years. In his over fifty years years of scientific study and research, Hawking made discoveries thought impossible by previous scientists and jumpstarted even more careers in the field by engaging the public via literature, open panels, and even cameo appearances in television and film. Without a doubt the most intelligent man to have ever lived, Stephen Hawking leaves behind decades of exploration and investigation into the mysteries of the universe. As with any person in his line of work, his life is best seen through his studies – and if you get the chance, read his books or even his doctorate thesis (which is available free online). But let's take a look at his early days, and what kind of legacy the acclaimed scientist has left behind.

Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, three hundred years to the day after the death of early astronomer Galileo Galilei. From a young age he showed his intellect, though he did not do well at school until he discovered science classes. At age 17, he began studying at the University of Oxford, where he joined the school rowing team and met his first wife, Jane. However, as time went on, he began having difficulties rowing and moving, and went to a doctor. There he was diagnosed with motor neuron disease, and because of the times and ability of medical technology at the time, was given a life expectancy of two years. This was in 1963, and his final year at Oxford. Despite the two-year warning, his disease progressed much slower, and Hawking was able to attend Cambridge to earn a doctorate degree after his professor helped him with a depression. His speech was becoming diffucult, his walking required crutches, but that did not stop him from doing research into black holes and the possibility of a “space-time wormhole” within them. After writing his thesis on this very subject, Hawking was given a doctorate degree in 1966, aged 24. It was as if his illness was just a minor bump in the road. After receiving his degree, Hawking continued his study, even trying to disprove his own theory to uncover more information – such as how black holes generate a type of radiation (now dubbed “Hawking radiation”). The public began getting interested in black holes and the mysteries of what lies in space, and Hawking knew how to explain these concepts without talking down to them, thus making him a household name by the mid 1970s.

He never lost his wit or humor, and eventually had to be confined to a wheelchair (against his own desires, but there really ways no choice), and relied on close friends and family to interpret his speech to interviewers and colleagues, his disease slowly taking more and more of his energy. His work was being taught worldwide, as if he was an ancient mind like Newton or Copernicus. In 1985, he came down with pneumonia, which made breathing even more difficult – and the only way doctors could save him would be to perform a tracheotomy, but it would render him unable to speak and require 24-hour nurse care. One of those nurses would become his second wife after his divorce from Jane. Hawking did not care for the “communication board” he was given to use, and within a year was given a new text-to-speech system, thus giving him his iconic computer voice. Originally he was able to type by hand, but by 2005 had to use a system connected to his cheek in order to create text – and interviews had to use pre-submitted questions for him to program into the computer beforehand. His famous book, A Brief History of Time, which explained scientific concepts in such a way that the average person could understand was released in 1988, and was an international best seller. Around this time and in the decades that followed, he made several cameo appearances, from Star Trek: The Next Generation to The Simpsons to modern sitcoms like The Big Bang Theory, and even appeared on two Pink Floyd albums with music overlayed over his voice.

But Hawking's achievements are not “in spite of his disability.” He was intelligent before he was unable to move or speak. He was researching and theorizing things once thought impossible. It just so happened that his body wasn't physically fit. His discoveries and theories, his writings and his speeches, are forever tied into physics and cosmology. He had a disability, yes, but his story is not impressive just because of that. He was breaking the mold of science and inspiring generations to get involved in scientific studies. Stephen Hawking was in a category that consisted of Albert Einstein and Carl Sagan, scientists that were known by everybody, not just those interested in the subject. Now, because of his ability to explain profound concepts to the average person, there are more and more scientists that are just as well-known, and more people who listen to what they have to say. He didn't personally discuss his disability much, because while it was a major aspect of his life, his scientific work was the more important to him. He was lucky to have lived long past the original diagnosis, but even still – he was working on a doctorate thesis unheard of then, so regardless he would have made an impact on black hole research.

Stephen Hawking was one of my personal heroes. Reading his books opened my mind to concepts and ideas that further extend understanding of the universe we live in. This was a man who would theorize something, then set out to disprove it in an effort to find the truth. A sense of humor that never faded and always made his talks and interviews memorable, to him he was not some big shot celebrity, he was a scientist wanting to find out how and why we are here, and what how the universe began and continues to expand. His legacy is one of scientific achievement, inspiring kids to read into his works and pursue a STEM career – some of whom are lucky enough to have worked with him in their adult lives. Hawking never took an IQ test, saying that “people who boast about their IQ are losers.” He cared more for one's own individual intelligence, not for how smart they were on paper. It is fitting he died on what would have been Albert Einstein's 139th birthday, considering he was born on the three-hundredth anniversary of Galileo's death. Three men who made such important discoveries about what lies beyond our planet, all three with names instantly recognizable to anybody around the world. The world lost a great mind with his passing. We'll never have another mind like his again, but his decades of discovery will continue to be examined and investigated, adapted and used to enhance technology and our view of what's beyond our planet.

Cover Image Credit: Lwp Kommunikáció/Astronomy Magazine

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100 Instagram Captions You'll Want To Use Right Now

Quotes, lyrics, sayings, and other ideas for Instagram captions!
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When it comes to Instagram we are often thinking about what to use as a caption for our photos that we take that we really want to post on Instagram. Sometimes we post the photo without a caption and sometimes we just use an emoji because we're stumped on finding a good caption to use for the photo. So we go the short route and just put an emoji as a caption for our photo. Well whether it is a selfie, a friend pic, group pic, or just need a caption for the photo, here are 100 captions to use for a photo. Some are lyrics, some are quotes, and some are just a quick caption to use on your photo. Also here are some accounts that are worth following:

-@brandonwoelfel

-@tess_and_sarah

-@brandymelvilleusa

-@goldenretrievers_

-@cats_of_instagram

-@zodiac.signs

-@thegrilledpineapple

-@jazzjennings_

-@chipper_thegolddog

-@llauratheleo

-@heyshalice

-@sailorhaley

-@sandcloudteam

-@photosabss

-@sharkbaitblond

Here are Quotes To Use As A Caption/ Lyrics To Use As A Caption/ Quick Little Sayings To Use As A Caption: for your Instagram photo that you wish to post!

1. Life goes on, with or without you.

2. Don't Worry Be Happy! Bob Marley

3. Be Happy.

4. Be Confident.

5. Be Positive.

6. Don't be a liar, everyone hates a liar.

7. Chillin' with my peeps.

8. Go big or go home.

9. What's the deal?

10. The most important thing is to enjoy your life – to be happy – it's all that matters.

11. Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced.

12. Life is a gift.

13. You couldn't handle me even if I came with instructions.

14. Forgive, yes. Forget, never.

15.There's a hole in my heart where you used to be.

16. I don't need any part-time people in my life.

17. Get the gist.

18. Boy, it's the 21st Century, get with the program.

19. Hey, I just met you, this is crazy!

20. I woke up like this.

21. Keep smiling because life is a beautiful thing and there's so much to smile about.

22. Beauty is power, a smile is its sword.

23. Last day of class!

24. I donut care!

25. Got my donut and coffee today.

26. Happy as a clam

27. Beach days are the best!

28. A friend will always make you smile, especially when you don't want to…

29. Always classy, never trashy, and a little bit sassy.

30. If only we could turn back time...

31. With you, I forget all my problems. With you, time stands still.

32. Life's a climb, but the view is great.

33. "Ohana, means family, family means no one gets left behind or forgotten." — "Lilo & Stitch"

34. We come to love by not finding the perfect person, but by learning to see the imperfect person perfectly.

35. If I ever write a story about my life, don't be surprised if your name appears a billion times.

36. She's got that red lip, classic thing going on.

37. I don't know what's tighter, our jeans or our friendship!

38. Best friends make good times better and hard times easier!

39. Not sure what I did to deserve you as my best friend :)

40. I don't need your approval to be me.

41. So call me? Maybe?

42. "I am who.I am, I am what I am, I do what I do and I ain't never gonna do it any different. I don't care who likes it and who don't." — Buck Owens

43. Take me as I am, or watch me as I go.

44. "Kiss me under the light of a thousand stars." — Ed Sheeran

45. Cause you're a sky full of stars — Coldplay

46 . I keep dancing on my own — Calum Scott

47. Can't keep my hands to myself — Selena Gomez

48. I just want to look good for you — Selena Gomez

49. Kill em with kindness — Selena Gomez

50. I am not perfect. I make mistakes. But when I say sorry… I mean it!

51. Me? Weird? Please! I am limited edition!

52. Turn that frown upside down.

53. Smile, it's the best thing a girl can wear!

54, Stay true.

55. Laughing is the best medicine you can ever get!

56. "You're the king, baby I'm your queen." — Taylor Swift

57. Best Friends Forever!

58.Throwing it back to the good ole days!

59. Ugg Life.

60. I know you like, first-name-basis.

61. *Sends selfie to NASA cuz I'm a star*

62. Basic white girl.

63. Frisky Friday!

64. My thoughts are stars that I cannot fathom into constellations. — "The Fault In Our Stars"

65. "Maybe our okays will be our infinities." — The Fault In Our Stars

66. So hold onto me because I'm a little unsteady — Unsteady

67. This has got to be the best day of my life.

68. She's the beauty and he's the beast.

69. "All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them." — Walt Disney

70. "If you can dream it, you can do it." — Walt Disney

71. "Hakuna Matata, it means no worries for the rest of your days." — "The Lion King"

72. "The past can hurt. But the way I see it, you can either run from it, or learn from it." — "The Lion King."

73. "Remember you're the one who can fill the world with sunshine." — "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"

74 ."The flower that blooms in adversity is the most rare and beautiful of all." — "Mulan"

75. "You don't have time to be timid. You must be bold and daring." — "Beauty and the Beast"

76. "All it takes is faith and trust." — "Peter Pan"

77. "A little consideration, a little thought for others, makes all the difference." — "Winnie the Pooh"

78. "If you focus on what you left behind, you will never be able to see what lies ahead." — "Ratatouille"

79. "Life isn't about finding yourself. Life is about creating yourself." — George Bernard Shaw

80. "A true hero isn't measured by the size of his strength, but by the strength of his heart." — "Hercules"

81. "Life's not a spectator sport. If watchin' is all you're gonna do, then you're gonna watch your life go by without ya." — "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"

82. "The things that make me different are the things that make me ME." — "Winnie the Pooh"

83. "Giving up is for rookies." — "Hercules"

84. "Happiness is the richest thing we will ever own." — Donald Duck

85. "Change is good." — "The Lion King"

86. "In the end, it's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years." — Abraham Lincoln

87. "An unexamined life is not worth living." — Socrates

88. "Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm, but to add color to my sunset sky." — Rabindranath Tagore

89. "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched, they must be felt with the heart." — Helen Keller

90. "The sky broke like an egg into full sunset and the water caught fire." — Pamela Hansford Johnson

91. "Put your heart, mind, and soul into even your smallest acts. This is the secret of success." — Swami Sivananda

92. "Today I choose life. Every morning when I wake up I can choose joy, happiness, negativity, pain... To feel the freedom that comes from being able to continue to make mistakes and choices. Today I choose to feel life, not to deny my humanity, but embrace it." — Kevyn Aucoin

93. "Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'," — Audrey Hepburn

94. "Keep your face always toward the sunshine and shadows will fall behind you." — Walt Whitman

95. "My power's turned on, starting right now I'll be strong." — Rachel Platten

96. "Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared." — Buddha

97. "Let your life lightly dance on the edges of Time like dew on the tip of a leaf." — Rabindranath Tagore

98. "I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'" — Muhammad Ali

99. "Why don't you be you, and I'll be me." — James Bay

100. Life is like a camera, we focus on the positives and develop from the negatives.

Cover Image Credit: Pixabay

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Antonio Brown Vs. JuJu Smith-Schuster

AB's low-blow at JuJu has put a target on his back for the impending 2019 season.

JordynL
JordynL
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Recently, Raiders wide-receiver Antonio Brown initiated a Twitter "war" after Steelers wide-receiver JuJu Smith-Schuster was named MVP for the 2018 season. Brown retaliated with a response to a tweet shared by a fan that sparked a fire and brought emotions to an all time high within the NFL fan base. All of which took place after the former wide-receiver for Pittsburgh previously tweeted "Keep your emotions off the internet" just hours earlier, acting as if he is the herald of good advice. Ever since then AB has been nothing but emotional, even taking down a former teammate in the process.

Personal Twitter Screenshot

We've all been exposed to AB's attitude since he was drafted to the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2010, but it's gotten worse over time. Still, Pittsburgh fans disregarded his actions for a while because of his skills on the field and million dollar smile. His charm and endless pictures of his children always, if not most of the time, managed to get the fans of Steeler Nation to turn a blind eye to his mischievous ways- at least until the past few seasons. It seemed that his attitude had gotten worse, along with his sense of entitlement and spreading of hate and jealousy toward his fellow players. His attitude and purposeful actions eventually granted his wish of being traded from the Steelers, ending up as the Raiders' new wide-receiver. Ever since the trade, his ruthless attitude and ongoing hypocrisy continues to ascend to greater levels than before, after JuJu fired back at Antonio with a dose of his own medicine.

Personal Twitter Screenshot

Immediately following, JuJu expressed the betrayal and disrespect he received, regardless of the fact that he practically idolized AB since he got drafted in 2017. The rookie MVP called out the Pittsburgh veteran for the size of his ego and ability to fire shots at people that adored him. If anything, this debacle was an enlightening event for the young WR and is now aware of what kind of person his former idol is.

Personal Twitter Screenshot

Following this, AB decided to take advantage of one of his known slogans #CallGod a few days after the fact. Instead of continuing his antagonizing behavior, he decided to quote the Bible as if it would excuse his initial shot toward JuJu. In doing so, he decided to carefully pick verses from Luke 6 in order to fit his own egotistical agenda.

Personal Twitter Screenshot

"But love your enemies, do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return." Luke 6:35, a verse that is visibly ignored to avoid contradictions for his recent actions. As we can see in the tweet thread, fans are recognizing the hypocrisy that Antonio Brown is proudly exuding and are emphasizing it. AB's repugnant attitude and "preaching" has pushed fans to see that Brown will betray anyone who attempts to take his spotlight, regardless of him making the same mistakes in past seasons. The once-beloved, former Pittsburgh WR is ready and willing to place blame on fellow teammates but will very rarely take blame for his own faults. Because of this trait and actions that have followed, Brown now has a target on his back for the 2019 season.

Personal Twitter Screenshot

The NFC is ready to avenge JuJu Smith-Schuster and I don't believe Antonio realizes what he's gotten himself into. It's no secret that Brown has quick feet and can run across the field with great speed and agility, but people always find a way when rage drives them. It seems as if JuJu has great support across the entirety of the NFL, regardless of rivalries that exist.

Let's remember: Antonio Brown was in his prime with the Pittsburgh Steelers. The Raiders are getting the aftermath that won't last much longer. It wouldn't surprise me if the Raiders make arrangements for someone to buy-out his three-year contract if his attitude doesn't improve. No team, no coach, will tolerate Antonio longer than Coach Tomlin did. Regardless, AB better start taking his "Call God" slogan seriously because he might need the Big-Man soon if he continues his disgusting and childish shenanigans.

JordynL
JordynL

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