The Controversial Decision

The Controversial Decision

Japan's Situation

II. The Japanese Situation

Gar Alperovitz asserts in the being of his text that the Japanese Army was in fact defeated and the use of the Atomic Bomb was unnecessary to defeat the Japan.[Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 18.] Morton also touches on this issue very briefly and states that a major question at the time had whether the Japanese had been beaten. [Louis Morton. The Decision to Use the Atom Bomb. (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army. 1990.), 493.] Alperovitz begins talking about the common and generally well-known theory of the state of Japan and it’s Military by the end of the war. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 17.] In his text, Alperovitz includes a quote by Robert J.C. Butow describing Japan’s state:

“…the scales of war had been tipped so steeply against the Japanese that no counterweights at their disposal could possibly have balanced them…the defense perimeter that Japan had created been cracked and penetrated; worst of all, Japan’s military potential was dropping rapidly with her industrial capacity…” [Ibid.]

As a result of the United States superior industrial capacity, the lack of a European German victory and the breakdown of Japan’s industrial base, Japan was faltering in 1945. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995),18] To add the already dire Japanese situation the United States Navy and Army Air Corps had as Alperovitz says, “Mercilessly pummeled” Japan by November of 1944. [Ibid.]

With this, the Japanese government and military was defeated, meanwhile the United States Military was gearing up for what they believed to be the most difficult campaign of the war. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 19] However, in reality according to Alperovitz Japan was beaten and therefore willing to surrender before the bomb would be dropped. [Ibid.]

Meanwhile though, Japan (probably) sensing the impending invasion by the United States and Great Britain sought out help from the Soviet Union. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 20] Despite prior assurances by Stalin to Roosevelt about assistance with the Japanese invasion, Japan attempted to curtail the United States effort for unconditional surrender by requesting assistance from the Soviet Union, who was not officially at war with Japan yet. [Ibid.]

Alperovitz concludes that the United States had knowledge of Japan’s decline, however whether or not they knew that they could end the war without an invasion or atomic bomb. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 33.] With these factors in mind, why did then the United States decide to bomb Japan? Alperovitz claims it was dealing with Truman’s fixation on the unconditional surrender of the Japanese Empire. [Ibid., 34.]

However the idea of an unconditional surrender threatened this idea of the Japanese Emperor being revered as a living deity, which was well known to the United States government. [Gar Alperovitz. The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1995), 35-36.] This brings Alperovitz to his conclusion on Truman’s decision the United States had no guarantee what the loss of life would be in taking the island, and with no guarantee of the Soviet Union’s assistance, and the reassurances that the Emperor would remain in charge, Truman used the bomb to force the Soviet Union’s involvement and Japan’s capitulation. [Ibid., 85.]

With this being said Alperovitz claims that the United States didn’t need to use the atomic bomb or an invasion. However, is Alperovitz asserting then, that Truman did use the atomic bomb in order to bait Stalin into declaring war? However finally, with Alperovitz’s claims then Truman’s goals where aimed towards a Soviet response.

However, many scholars such as D.M. Giangreco state that many members of the cabinet had developed causality estimates. One of the most telling is that Herbert Hoover, former President of the United States (1929-1933) submitted a report similar to that of Truman’s advisors: 500,000-1,000,000. [D.M. Giangreco. “A Score of Bloody Okinawas and Iwo Jimas: President Truman and Casualty Estimates for the Invasion of Japan,” University of California Press Vol. 72, No. 1 (2003): 110.]

However, his monthly mortality rate per month was 100,000 men, this is significantly higher than previous estimates. [D.M. Giangreco. “A Score of Bloody Okinawas and Iwo Jimas: President Truman and Casualty Estimates for the Invasion of Japan,” University of California Press Vol. 72, No. 1 (2003): 107.] Many advisors (including Hoover) had also concluded that the Japanese Army had three and half million troops at their disposal. [Ibid.] The reports also showed that Japan was trying to produce close five million troops, all of which were well armed and prepared to fight the Allied invasion. [Ibid.]

Cover Image Credit: Goodimages

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To The Girl Struggling With Her Body Image

It's not about the size of your jeans, but the size of your heart, soul, and spirit.


To the girl struggling with her body image,

You are more than the number on the scale. You are more than the number on your jeans and dresses. You are way more than the number of pounds you've gained or lost in whatever amount of time.

Weight is defined as the quantity of matter contained by a body or object. Weight does not define your self-worth, ambition or potential.

So many girls strive for validation through the various numbers associated with body image and it's really so sad seeing such beautiful, incredible women become discouraged over a few numbers that don't measure anything of true significance.

Yes, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle. Yes, it is important to take care of yourself. However, taking care of yourself includes your mental health as well. Neglecting either your mental or physical health will inflict problems on the other. It's very easy to get caught up in the idea that you're too heavy or too thin, which results in you possibly mistreating your body in some way.

Your body is your special, beautiful temple. It harbors all of your thoughts, feelings, characteristics, and ideas. Without it, you wouldn't be you. If you so wish to change it in a healthy way, then, by all means, go ahead. With that being said, don't make changes to impress or please someone else. You are the only person who is in charge of your body. No one else has the right to tell you whether or not your body is good enough. If you don't satisfy their standards, then you don't need that sort of negative influence in your life. That sort of manipulation and control is extremely unhealthy in its own regard.

Do not hold back on things you love or want to do because of how you interpret your body. You are enough. You are more than enough. You are more than your exterior. You are your inner being, your spirit. A smile and confidence are the most beautiful things you can wear.

It's not about the size of your jeans. It's about the size of your mind and heart. Embrace your body, observe and adore every curve, bone and stretch mark. Wear what makes you feel happy and comfortable in your own skin. Do your hair and makeup (or don't do either) to your heart's desire. Wear the crop top you've been eyeing up in that store window. Want a bikini body? Put a bikini on your body, simple.

So, as hard as it may seem sometimes, understand that the number on the scale doesn't measure the amount or significance of your contributions to this world. Just because that dress doesn't fit you like you had hoped doesn't mean that you're any less of a person.

Love your body, and your body will love you right back.

Cover Image Credit: Lauren Margliotti

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Saying You "Don't Take Political Stances" IS A Political Stance

All you're doing by saying this is revealing your privilege to not care politically, and here's why that's a problem.


I'm sure all of us know at least one person who refuses to engage in political discussions - sure, you can make the argument that there is a time and a place to bring up the political happenings of our world today, but you can't possibly ignore it all the time. You bring up the last ridiculous tweet our president sent or you try to discuss your feelings on the new reproductive regulation bills that are rising throughout the states, and they find any excuse to dip out as quickly as possible. They say I don't talk about politics, or I'm apolitical. Well everyone, I'm here to tell you why that's complete bullsh*t.

Many people don't have the luxury and privilege of ignoring the political climate and sitting complacent while terrible things happen in our country. So many issues remain a constant battle for so many, be it the systematic racism that persists in nearly every aspect of our society, the fact that Flint still doesn't have clean water, the thousands of children that have been killed due to gun violence, those drowning in debt from unreasonable medical bills, kids fighting for their rights as citizens while their families are deported and separated from them... you get the point. So many people have to fight every single day because they don't have any other choice. If you have the ability to say that you just don't want to have anything to do with politics, it's because you aren't affected by any failing systems. You have a privilege and it is important to recognize it.

Martin Luther King Jr. once said, "history will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamor of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people."

We recognize that bad people exist in this world, and we recognize that they bring forth the systems that fail so many people every single day, but what is even more important to recognize are the silent majority - the people who, by engaging in neutrality, enable and purvey the side of the oppressors by doing nothing for their brothers and sisters on the front lines.

Maybe we think being neutral and not causing conflict is supposed to be about peacekeeping and in some way benefits the political discussion if we don't try to argue. But if we don't call out those who purvey failing systems, even if it's our best friend who says something homophobic, even if it's our representatives who support bills like the abortion ban in Alabama, even if it's our president who denies the fact that climate change is killing our planet faster than we can hope to reverse it, do we not, in essence, by all accounts of technicality side with those pushing the issues forward? If we let our best friend get away with saying something homophobic, will he ever start to change his ways, or will he ever be forced to realize that what he's said isn't something that we can just brush aside? If we let our representatives get away with ratifying abortion bans, how far will the laws go until women have no safe and reasonable control over their own bodily decisions? If we let our president continue to deny climate change, will we not lose our ability to live on this planet by choosing to do nothing?

We cannot pander to people who think that being neutral in times of injustice is a reasonable stance to take. We cannot have sympathy for people who decide they don't want to care about the political climate we're in today. Your attempts at avoiding conflict only make the conflict worse - your silence in this aspect is deafening. You've given ammunition for the oppressors who take your silence and apathy and continue to carry forth their oppression. If you want to be a good person, you need to suck it up and take a stand, or else nothing is going to change. We need to raise the voices of those who struggle to be heard by giving them the support they need to succeed against the opposition.

With all this in mind, just remember for the next time someone tells you that they're apolitical: you know exactly which side they're on.


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