What Are The Seven Wonders Of The World?

What Are The Seven Wonders Of The World?

These have mesmerized travelers since the second century.

The "Seven Wonders of the World" are a popular topic in art history. They represent the most mystifying and grand man-made classical antiquity structures in the Ancient World. Its original and commonly accepted list dates back to sightseeing books in Greece during the Hellenic era. Antipater of Sidon is credited with the feature, which originated in the second century B.C. but was considered finalized in the Middle Ages.

Debate has arisen over classification, but it is important to consider the bias of the list makers. All of the wonders were beloved by travelers. Geographically, they were in places along the Eastern Mediterranean area, easily accessible to Greeks. Speculation has extended to question whether all seven actually existed. It certainly put history under the spotlight, showing how flimsy recovered artifacts can be if the creator is questionable.

History would take its toll. All but one location have survived destruction from human civilization, although efforts have been raised to restore the structures to their once glorious status. Like most of what Ancient Greeks did in their productive civilizations, this too has been referenced and replicated in modern society. From the Statue of Liberty to the internet itself, lists have sought to continue a tradition.

1. The Great Pyramid of Giza

This is the only one of the Seven Wonders to remain intact, allowing us to see what the Ancient Greeks fell in love with. It is one of three pyramids and at 479 feet tall remained the world's tallest structure until the Eiffel Tower in 1889. Man-made, it stands as a testament to what humans could do and the planning needed to reach its literal and theoretical heights.

Using two million blocks perfectly seamed together, it baffles observers. No known plans were left behind, enhancing its mysterious allure. Theories have ranged from there being wooden ramps to hydraulic power. One thing is for sure, resources and strength were needed from across the lands of present-day Cairo.

This is not a solid shape, but rather, habitable. Built for ruler Pharaoh Khufu, it has royal chambers and tomb sections. To present day, historians are constantly learning more about the pyramids. In just 2017 a void was discovered, causing more search and speculation.

2. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

This is the aforementioned structure historians have questioned the existence of. While even the most destroyed pieces have left traces behind, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon have not left a trace for archeologists. Efforts have been strong, with a German team dedicating two decades of searching. Some have concluded it was all just a false image and speculation passed down like wildfire.

Others are not so sure that the effort dedicated to the Hanging Gardens was an error. Scholars have suggested it was built elsewhere and misattributed to Babylon due to shaky geographical territories. The earlier centuries were marked by constant conquests.

The 75-foot tall structure evokes a natural sense. With its dangling vegetation, it mixes architecture and green delights. Its free-flowing waterwheels supply water from the nearby river, requiring engineering methods. It is depicted in Greek and Roman art, but there are no first handwritten accounts. Rather, there are second-hand writings after its alleged desolation. Initially, it was said to be made by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II for his wife Amytis.

3. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Around 40 feet tall, it was located in the Temple of Zeus. At the time in Ancient Greece, cities were competing with each other. Art was a tool to show advancement and technique. Greeks believed the better dedicated and more temples, the more the Gods would adore them and grant wishes. This was very political in nature and used to establish status.

Its sizing was meant to show the Greek Olympian God of the universe in grandiose power. However, the proportions are interesting. Should he theoretically stand up from the throne, Zeus could not fit in a temple dedicated to him and what is supposed to be his home. This was more about image than functionality.

4. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Built on the edges of the Greek world, its large stature and position showed those off-shore the glory of everything Greece was achieving. The temple was another example of dedication, this time to the hunt and moon Goddess Artemis. Mixing Greek and Eastern designs were common to its civilization.

Inside the temple, there are depictions of the Amazons. Those were powerful women reeking havoc on Greek civilization, causing trouble for heroes and Gods. The Amazons would be defeated, and like Medusa and the Centaurs, featured for Greek visitors on a platter. This was propagandistic, basking in the rich history of conquest and Greeks retaining balance in the world.

Greeks showed interest in the likes of Egypt and would even adopt mythical creatures such as sphinxes. The Temple of Artemis has a rather rough history. It was destroyed by a blaze, but later rebuilt, only to be destroyed again. Only ruins are visible on a trip to the city.

5. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Mausoleums are large tombs and this one was specifically ordered by Artemisia for her husband king Maussollos. The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus has all the hallmarking of a classical Greek building. However, this was made in the Roman era. Romans used Greek life as a reference point for their art, which would be continued with the Roman Empire being used in the Medieval Ages.

Sitting on a hill, Maussollos' tomb watched over his people and was a reference point to citizens. It was lavish in style and the best Greek artists were commissioned to make sculptures. The effort and power behind the tomb show how beloved the person was.

6. The Colossus of Rhodes

Greek cities usually had a God they worshiped and believed protected them. Athens had Athena, whereas the island of Rhodes had Helios. 110 feet tall, the statue stood firmly with a torch in hand. The Statue of Liberty in New York is simpler for modern reference. Greeting visitors at the entrance could see it.

But little information is known about the giant structure that lasted a mere 50 years. An earthquake caused it to break and it was decided not to rebuild it for luck. Hoping to refuel the Greek economy and make new jobs, plans have been proposed to rebuild the monument.

7. The Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria

Built at Pharos, it was designed to assist sailors along Alexandria's busy routes. Its prime location allowed light to be seen from 35 miles away according to legend. Its 400-foot height – one of the world's tallest at the time – certainly helped. A fire was lit every evening and in the daytime, a mirror reflected the sun's light.

Built with white marble and reinforced with molten lead, it was defensive against the rapid sea waves. However, it was no match for other natural events. It endured numerous earthquakes before collapsing in the 1400s, with little rumble to be found. Its popularity has not be lost and even found Greek poet fanfare. Italian, French and Spanish use the word "Pharos" to mean lighthouse because of this structure.

Cover Image Credit: paweesit / Flickr

Popular Right Now

What the F*&%?!

Cursing is highly controversial in today's society, but my question is, why?

Have you ever been in a heated argument with someone and they suddenly drop the F-bomb on you? As soon as that one word is said, the argument immediately takes a turn for the worst because now you are no longer angry about the topic of the argument, but you are angry that someone had the nerve to speak to you in such a way. I find it particularly amazing that a single word could evoke such emotions. An F-bomb, along with its cousin words $!*t, @*$, #%^!! (you get the gist of it) are like the ticking time bombs of the English language. Now I'm not here to justify or judge cursing in anyway. I simply aim to propose a possibly controversial question: Why the bleep do we give cursing so much bleeping power?

Growing up, I was exposed to two very different views on cursing. I have a parent who completely despises the idea of a curse-friendly vocabulary, calling the forbidden words "dirty" and "ugly". On the complete opposite side of the spectrum is my parent who sees no harm in using a curse word here and there, or in every sentence. The funny thing is, no matter their perspective on cursing, neither of them would approve of that kind of language from my lips. I understand that it is only a matter of respect and, consequently, would never dream of uttering a single curse word while in their presence. At the same time, I still question why it would be so awful for me to let one slip if I were to stub my toe or drop a glass. It is just a word, isn't it?

Words can be extremely powerful. Being a writer, I am very much aware of that. However, I still cannot understand the power of a curse word. When certain letters are placed in a distinct order, the word is formed and becomes a force that can easily explode into an argument just as quickly as it can end one. Yet, take away a few letters and replace them with symbols such as @ and #, and it becomes okay. Replace a person's voice with a high pitched beeping sound and it is like the word was never said. Why? We all still know what the symbols are meant to spell and how the bleep had originally sounded. Somehow we are led to believe that just because we can neither see nor hear it, it loses its strength and meaning. If that is true, then why not say you love someone less when you can't hear the words "I love you".

I suppose our ongoing dispute with curse words is due to the way we were raised. Children should not curse. Cursing is bad and it's disrespectful. Adults, on the other hand, can curse. For that, we can say that cursing is equal to the consumption of alcohol; it's an adult thing. Like all "adult things", it will make its way to teenagers. Still being a teen myself (although I'd like to think I'm an adult), I am no stranger to how often the average teen will curse. However, most of the time, they aren't cursing to pick a fight or sound angry. They are just talking. That big, bad curse word that five-year-old self you used to become a tattletale for is now just a word you say when joking around with your friends. I've noticed that adults also use curse words as if they were always meant to be harmless. I can see the elders cringing and shaking their heads in disappointment when they hear the extensive vocabulary being used so carelessly.

Like I have already mentioned, I am neither for nor against the use of curse words. I simply don't understand them. We can speak them, but can't see or hear them? It can be used as an insult and equally as a friendly greeting? How can it be so powerful and meaningless at the same time? I won't pretend to know it all. Instead, I shall leave it up to you to determine what the f*&% cursing is really about!

Cover Image Credit: Content Time

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Advice Every 20 Year Old Needs to Hear

Your 20s is your peak; the prime time to figure out what the next step in your life will be.

You have to hustle between finishing your higher education and jump-starting your career. There’s a lot of pressure coming from your family, your peers, and most importantly, the pressure you put on yourself to become the absolute best.

Yet, it’s so easy to get lost in all the desires to be instantly successful and recognized. But in an era where everyone is trying to achieve the same thing, instant gratification is not the way to make it in the long term. I know it’s tempting to appear to be #blessed by donning Cartier bracelets worth your entire college tuition fees. Maybe you long to buy yourself a Range Rover and customize it with extravagant decors, but let’s be real, normal people don’t really live like that.

As a 20-something fresh graduate, I know how difficult and scary it is to start this chapter in our lives. I was overwhelmed by anxiety and so ridiculously afraid of making mistakes. On the other hand, my yearning to emulate the Kardashians and the Jenners, like many millennials these days, sidetracked me. It made me focus on the wrong reasons as to why I strive to be successful. Sure, being well-known for your successes and have the riches as proof can be great. Be that as it may, if you’re not happy and content when you go to bed at night, you need to retrace your steps.

Based on the advice given by entrepreneur and marketing expert, Gary Vaynerchuk here, this article is for you, my fellow, struggling, 20 year olds who’s trying to make it in this harsh, superficial, digitally-driven world.

Explore your options

Being cautious can have its advantages but you can utilize your youth to explore different paths. Flirt with different ideas and reach outside your comfort zone. If you don’t consider all the options that you want to do, the thought of ‘what if’ can be crippling. It will prevent you from reaching your highest potential. There are so many young adults in their early 20s that are unhappy with where their life is going due to pressure from parents and family members. Don’t punish yourself by doing something you know you won’t enjoy doing for 10+ years. Take your time to find something that you do love and are passionate about. If you want to explore the world before settling down, go for it. Or if you want to start your own startup company, just do it. Pursue what you want to do and ignore what others have to say.

Never look at others’ successes

Do not ever compare yourself with others. You might see other millennials hit important milestones early in their 20s but always remember that everyone is doing what they’re supposed to do at their own paces. Of course, through social media, it’s easier to highlight one’s material achievements. However, those Instagram posts from ‘rich kids’ are just shallow portrayals of superfluous successes.

When you compare your successes to others, this can deter your motivation and you may have a hard time bouncing back from the rut. The jealousy and envy is toxic. Every second you spend on thinking about what somebody else has achieved is taking away the time you can use to create something out of yourself. Channel that energy to motivate yourself to do better and beat your previous accomplishments. We are our greatest competitions after all.

Prepare to make sacrifices

Be willing to sacrifice weekend hangouts or pub crawls with your besties. The time for entertainment can be used to better yourself, your career, and your life as a whole. The time spent chilling with friends every afternoon is likely to be reduced to just a weekend brunch or a quick dinner. Get ready to spend those free times by doing work to meet deadlines.

With that being said, since it’s your 20s after all, life can often be forgiving. The sacrifices you make doesn’t have to be drastic; it can be small yet impactful. Know how to balance out your responsibilities with your leisure time. The quick dinners and weekend brunches with friends might seem short, but as long as you keep thinking of these times as a reward after all the work you did, then you’re good to go.

Set a realistic goal

You want to be a millionaire by the time you’re 25? Good luck because you’ll be needing all of it. All those people on Forbes’ 30 under 30 list have been working their asses off before they were even legal. Some became millionaires because of pure luck or their fortunes were served on a silver platter. Rather than focusing your energy to become extremely rich, steer your attention towards enriching your life instead. Like said before, your 20s is your prime. It’s the perfect time to explore and experience new things. But it doesn’t mean you can let go of all responsibilities and ignore the consequences. It’s okay to dream big, but when exploring those paths, set a realistic and beneficial goal that you can actually see yourself achieving. 

Enjoy the grind

At the end of the day, whatever you’re doing to achieve success should be enjoyable. Embrace the journey of getting there; no matter where ‘there’ is.  Even if you have to flip burgers at a fast food joint to make ends meet or cater demanding clients, you must find joy in the smallest thing to avoid discouragement and resentment. The journey is always more essential than the destination. On your way up, you can learn critical skills and knowledge that you can use in the long run. Getting to the top instantaneously can leave you empty as it allows you to do less enriching work. Knowing that you’ve put in 110% into everything is enough to fill you with joy and keep you motivated.

Love your battle scars

Recognize all your failures and welcome it with a positive mindset. All our mistakes and failures will open new doors that can lead to something greater. Never ever be too hard on yourself if you get rejected from that prestigious master’s program or if you’ve been turned down from the perfect job position. Never be afraid of failure because you know that you gave it your all. These minor setbacks could propel you further in your career. “The universe will unfold as it should.” Keep this mantra close through thick and thin. It can reassure you that no matter what obstacles you’re facing, it can lead to greater and better things, and all your failures will make you who you are today.

Slow & steady wins the race

Your 20s is the moment to practice your patience. Slowly work your way up your career ladder or save money for that big solo trip you’ve always dreamed of. Know that nothing can be achieved overnight. You must dedicate time and effort, sometimes for years, before you can see results. You may see a lot of hares out there who have achieved great things early on in their 20s but fret not, with constant hard work and dedication, tortoises always reach the finish line no matter how long it takes.

Reflect from time to time 

When push comes to shove, always come back to yourself and reflect. Always ask yourself who are you doing all this for? What does success mean to you? The answer should always benefit you and yourself alone and not for any other reasons. To obtain happiness is, of course, the ultimate reason why you should do anything. Other reasons like to make your parents proud or to pay off those student loans can also help to drive you forward. If you sense that I’m beginning to lose grasps on why you should live a productive life, look for motivation elsewhere. I often read the prose Desiderata by Max Ehrmann that teaches you how to live, not just your 20s, but your entire life, positively and happily. Regular reflections can keep you grounded and in check with your ideals.

Don’t beat yourself up

Whatever your goals may be and whatever your idea of success is, be gentle with yourself. Don’t beat yourself up and don’t hold yourself accountable for arbitrary fantasies. Bear in mind that everyone’s journey is different. No matter what your goal is and no matter how you’re going to achieve that, be sure to savor this time. There will be less room in your 30s and 40s to make mistakes and redeem yourself. There’s a reason why there are so many articles out there calling your 20s as the worst, hardest period yet your most important decade. This decade is forgiving; it forgives all your failures and the wrong choices made. All in all, whatever you decide to do with your 20s, strive to make the most of it by keeping true to your goals and your principles.

Febriana Ramadhanya is currently writing as an English Editorial Content Writer for a Malaysian-based price comparison website, iPrice Group. She’s also still getting used to (weirdly) referring to herself in third person. For more lifestyle articles please visit iPrice Group 

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