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# How Our Eyes Read Color

## The Scientific Justification of Neo-impressionist Color Theory

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Michel Eugene Chevreul

Last semester, I wrote a paper discussing the impact scientists Michel Eugène Chevreul and Ogden Rood had on the lead neo-impressionist artists Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, and Camille Pissarro. Through the analysis of Eugène Chevreul’s The Law of Simultaneous Contrast and Harmonization of Colors (1885) and Ogden Rood’s Modern Chromatics (1879), conclusions can be drawn on how their principles impacted the neo-impressionists’ paintings in the development of divisionism.

Basically, it is all about how are eyes see colors in relationship to other colors. Instead of giving you the twenty-five-page paper that would bore you to death, I am just going to give you the fun and interesting stuff!

The neo-impressionists used the scientific principles of color to develop the painting method known as divisionism. This is the dividing and recomposing of color using dots of chromatic analogous and complementary colors to create the optical impression of the intended color when viewed at a certain distance. As an example, you can see how our eyes optically blend colors when viewing a neo-impressionist painting up close versus far away.

Divisionism was loosely based upon Chevreul’s law of simultaneous contrast, successive contrast, and mixed contrast.

The Law of Simultaneous Contrast states that if we look at two strips of the same color at the same time next to different colors of the same tone side by side, the eye perceives changes in intensity of color and optically mixes the colors as well. Here is an example:

As you can see, the red appears brighter in the blue square, even though bother circles are the same hue.

Notice how are eye perceives the "x" differently in juxtaposition of each color!

Next, Successive contrast occurs the moment at which the eye having stared at a color object for a length of time, upon turning the gaze away sees an after image of those objects in their complementary colors. Again, here is an example:

Look at the image of the flag for 30 seconds before looking at the black x. Your eyes should see an after image in complementary colors!

Last, mixed contrast happens when the eye perceives the complementary color of the object first seen and a new colored object at the same time. Here is an exaggerated example. This is most noticeable at the edges between colors.

Mixed contrast is very noticeable in Seurat's Bathers at Asnières. ca. 1884.

Ogden Rood’s writing and color diagrams impacted artist’s understanding of additive color mixing versus subtractive color mixing.

Neo-impressionists believed optical mixture to be superior to mixing colors on the palette. They attributed this to the subtractive quality of pigments, as opposed to the additive qualities of light. The idea is that the more pigments that are mixed, the less light that is reflected. Neo-impressionists found justification of their beliefs in Rood’s spinning disc experiments46. In them, Rood demonstrates if one spins a color wheel, instead of the wheel appearing black, it appears white instead because of the blurring of the colored wavelengths together. Thus came the belief of a hierarchy of optical mixture to palette mixing.

At first, it was assumed that the neo-impressionist paintings actually reflected the principles perfectly, but later in 1987, historians such as Alan Lee and John Gage began to disagree because of the subjectivity of the artists. It can be argued that the artists did not adhere directly to these scientific formulas and maybe did not even fully understand the principles or that the representation of these principles in the paintings is incorrect and exaggerated, but the scientific essays gave them inspiration and understanding to create the painting technique of divisionism. The scientific justification of the technique allowed it to transcend style and become a movement.

Nor can one deny their beauty!

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This article has not been reviewed by Odyssey HQ and solely reflects the ideas and opinions of the creator.
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## Your color choice speaks volumes. It doesn't just emit an image for the car, it also says something about your style and personality! It's a form of self-expression. Are you confident? Are you sophisticated? Are you easy-going? Are you outgoing? Are you practical? As you're reviewing car sites for your next car purchase, what color will you opt for? Find out what certain color choices says about you!

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When it comes to car shopping you likely have certain preferences, including what color it should be. Your color choice speaks volumes. It doesn't just emit an image for the car, it also says something about your style and personality! It's a form of self-expression. Are you confident? Are you sophisticated? Are you easy-going? Are you outgoing? Are you practical? As you're reviewing car sites for your next car purchase, what color will you opt for? Find out what certain color choices says about you!

Red Cars

The color red is intense, and it is often associated with love, passion, and even danger. It's a color that calls out to people and grabs their attention. It says to people that you want to be heard and seen. It's fitting that the driver of a red vehicle is confident, ambitious, and full of energy.

Black Cars

The color black is often associated with power and sophistication. It's a color choice that exhibits classiness and elegance. This is very fitting for many business vehicles. It's also a very popular color for many luxury cars on the market. Beyond that, it's a safe bet color that tends to never go out of style.

White Cars

The color white represents purity. You are someone who's clean, clear, and who desires what's contemporary and elegant. You are also one who is hard-working and dependable because no detail is lost.

Blue Cars

The color blue is associated with authority. You may be viewed as someone who is credible, professional, and trustworthy. Blue is also a sign of self-assurance and calm. Those who opt for a lighter blue exhibit signs of friendliness and an upbeat attitude.

Silver Cars

The color silver represents innovation just like many of today's technology products. You are tech-savvy and someone who has an appreciation for what is current. It's a statement that you're sleek, modern, and forward-thinking.

Gray Cars

The color gray is associated with practicality. You are someone who does not require flashiness and attention, but rather what is convenient and practical. You are mature, sophisticated, and pragmatic in the way you go about life. Let's also be realistic! It's a great color for those of us who don't have much time to wash the car often. The gray helps hide the dirt and dust buildup. No wonder it remains as one of the more popular color choices for cars as revealed in BASF's recent Automotive Color Trends report.

Beige Cars

The color beige is associated with earthiness. You are someone who's down to earth, has an appreciation and respect for nature and the environment, and someone who uses common sense. You are someone who makes responsible decisions.

Your car color choice is a form of self-expression whether you realize it or not. Even when you make your color choice based on what's the best potential resale value, that's speaking to your personality and character. Are you one to play it safe or are you a risk-taker? Also, don't be surprised as more colors come on the market to help drivers with their self-expression. According to PPG, the trending color ahead is a sophisticated grey-green to represent healing, regrowth, and resiliency.
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# 30 Songs On My Back-To-School Playlist For Walks To And From Class

## Headed back to in-person classes means you need a pretty banging playlist to power you through those walks to class.

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Photo by Zen Chung on Pexels

I don't know about you, but I start each day off with a one-mile walk to class. I have to have good tunes flowing through my ears during those 20 minutes, not to mention the walks between classes and the walks home. So, here is my 30 song playlist to get me through this almost unfamiliar concept we call walking to class.

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# Be Kind to Yourself: 8 Mental Health Tips to Try

## One way you can improve your quality of life is to take care of your mental health. As a result, you'll feel less depressed and be able to enjoy spending time with friends and family more often. These mental health tips might be just what you need to forget about your problems.

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One way you can improve your quality of life is to take care of your mental health. As a result, you'll feel less depressed and be able to enjoy spending time with friends and family more often. These mental health tips might be just what you need to forget about your problems.

## Be Grateful Each Day

If you don't feel like you have much to live for, you might be surprised. All you have to do is write down a few things you're grateful for in a daily journal, and before you know it, you'll likely have a whole list. For starters, you might be thankful for your home, job, kids, nature, or dog.

## Enjoy Creative Self-Expression

Creative self-expression can help you be a better problem solver, boost your imagination and enhance your ability to be empathetic, among other things. Creative activities include drawing, cooking, sewing, painting, playing a musical instrument, creative writing, etc. If you can't get motivated, consider taking an arts & crafts class locally or online.

## Socialize Regularly

Spending time with people can increase your happiness, enhance your well-being and stave off loneliness. Indeed, making meaningful connections is a great way to stay healthy and forget about technology for a while. You and a friend or family member can check out a new restaurant, visit a museum or see a movie.

## Hang Out with a Pet

Pets can motivate you to exercise often, decrease your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and lower your stress levels. Then, of course, you can take your dog for a walk, teach him tricks or bake him some tasty pet-safe treats. And if you don't have a pet, consider adopting an animal from a nearby shelter to give a dog or cat a loving home.

## Color in a Coloring Book

One of the simplest activities can have a profound effect on mental health and well-being. To reduce stress or anxiety, try coloring in a coloring book. You don't have to be a child to gain other benefits such as improved sleep, vision, and focus. Adult coloring books and crayons are inexpensive, or use a kid's coloring book if you'd like. The point is to forget about life stresses and focus on something simple.

## Make Yourself Laugh

Although it's not always easy to find something to laugh at, you're likely to be successful if you keep trying. For one thing, you can get creative and make up original jokes. Other ideas are watching cartoons, reading free comics online, watching comedy movies, or something else you enjoy. No matter what, try to remember not to take life too seriously.

## Write it Out

When something makes you feel negative, the last thing you want to do is hold in your emotions. So instead, try letting go of tenseness by writing down your feelings. Once you've rid yourself of unwanted thoughts, you'll have additional peace of mind.

If you've endured struggles you'd like to share, don't hesitate to tell someone. For one, plenty of people can benefit from reading about any problems you've had with depression or recovery. Second, you can join a social media group or submit your story to a magazine for possible publication.

If you don't feel like you have the time to take care of your mental health, all you need is a few minutes a day to gain the benefits. For instance, try meditating for a couple of minutes on work breaks, upon waking, or before bedtime. Maintaining optimum mental health begins with small steps towards progress.

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# Should You Own An SUV If You Live In A Snowy state?

## There are many reasons to own an SUV. If you live in a cold state or a rural area, you will see that owning an SUV is very important.

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The gas and oil prices are too high to run in a smaller vehicle. You are better off with an SUV for hauling cargo and driving larger loads around the town. In addition, owning an SUV is more comfortable and safe than driving a smaller vehicle.

However, should you own an SUV if you live in a snowy area? It depends on where you live and how often you drive there. If you live in a region with a lot of snow then driving in an SUV could be dangerous if the car is not equipped with all wheel drive options. Even kids know who to call in case of an accident. There are a few steps you can take to make sure you will not have an accident in snowy conditions.

The first thing is to pay attention to what you are driving. While you might think that a car is safe to drive in the city, it can be at risk of being driven in a hazardous way in the city. Driving through heavy traffic, going fast, driving while talking on the cell phone or texting are all things to avoid.

When you are driving in a city, pay attention to every street sign for traffic laws. Every so often, a city councilor will stop traffic for a safety inspection. Many cities also do this periodically throughout the year. Paying attention to the signs and obey the rules of the road can keep you safe.

When you are on the road, you should pay attention to what the traffic around you is doing. A huge group of cars driving in the same direction can cause trouble. You don't want to get involved in a pile-up with someone behind you. You also don't want to crash into someone who is driving in front of you. Driving safely is very important to driving enjoyment.

If you plan to buy an SUV, you need to have a good driving record as well. Most insurance companies will not cover any damages due to accidents or traffic violations. Even when you are not the one at fault, sometimes it is a real struggle to get what is owed to you. That is why it is critical that you take care of any tickets or accidents that you get before you sign any documents. In the future, these tickets can count against you when it comes time to purchase a new vehicle. Make sure you have a good paper trail. You should also hire a Colorado attorney for Car Accidents if you live in a snowy state such as Colorado. There are professionals that will know the legal requirements of insurance companies. They are hired to help you.

If you plan on owning an SUV if you live in a town, you need to drive a dependable vehicle. Town cars tend to be smaller and less expensive than other types of vehicles. While they do make driving more fun, there are some drawbacks to owning a town car. The biggest drawback is that if you ever need to make an emergency stop, you may find that your town car is unable to pull you over quickly enough. This can be dangerous because you may end up stranded in a strange area without any means of transportation.

So, now that you know how to drive a town car like a professional driver should, you should know that owning an SUV if you live in a town is not a good idea. You should instead drive a four-door sedan. Or, if you are really into sports and you often drive around to play sports games, then you should definitely consider purchasing a sports car. Either way, you should always drive safely and with care so that you can prevent accidents and save money in the long run.

However, not all SUVs are good in the snow. Some SUVs such as the Tesla model or the GMC Terrain do awful in the snow. In these cases, there are sports cars or sedans that have all wheel drive and can handle better in the snow than most other SUVs. Doing your research will get you the top cars to own in a state that snows a lot. This will prevent accidents and unforeseen weather problems.

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# Understanding Why Dog's Lick You

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## Why do dogs lick?

It is a question every dog owner has asked themselves at some point. The reasons for licking can vary from one action to another and with each species. Many people think that it is a sign of love or affection while others think it is more so a sign of submission. In some cases, licking may indicate a health problem. There are many reasons as to why your dog licks you and below we will explore some of those.

## Dog Licking is Natural

It is a natural instinct for dogs to lick. If you look at the behavior of wild animals, especially carnivores such as wolves and coyotes, licking young or even other adults is a common practice. It can be seen as a mother tending to her young or as an intermediate step of communication. You may have even heard of the phrase "licking their wounds".

Wolves are predators, but they are also prey animals. This means that they are often hunted by other animals such as lions and bears, so licking their wounds is a way for them to heal without being detected. In this case, licking is much the same as when a cat licks its own wounds.

In domesticated dogs, licking can take on different meanings. For example, in less dominant or younger dogs you may see them lick their owner out of affection and submission.

In older animals, it can be seen as a sign of respect and an indication to lower yourself slightly in order to show your appreciation. Even with all these differences though, there are some universal truths about why dogs lick humans that we will explore below.

## Dogs Lick to Communicate

Licking is a way for a dog to communicate certain things to other animals including humans. One study from 2009 conducted by Péter Pongrácz at the Family Dog Project found when presented with two objects both containing a treat, dogs would spend significantly more time licking the one they found most desirable.

This is evidence for them believing that licking can be used as a way to show affection and to indicate their desire for something such as food or attention.

Another study from 2012 by Kawalilak Applja and Brian Hare at Duke University also concluded similar things with dogs and object preference.

They found that when given multiple objects each containing a piece of food, dogs chose to eat from those which were closest to them and licked those furthest away from the most (indicating an indirect preference).

As we can see, this research has shown how licking is indeed seen as a form of communication between animals including humans. It can be used within social hierarchies and relationships to show need, desire, and affection.

Whether it be a young pup licking its mother or an older dog licking an owner, the actions remain surprisingly similar.

What does this mean for other dogs? Well, dogs recognize each other's scents through their pheromones which are secreted from their saliva, urine, and feces. As such dogs can tell whether another animal is a friend or foe and use this information accordingly (such as marking over an enemy's scent).

For dogs living in social groups though they may also look at how much time another dog spends around them and if they lick them regularly, this tells them that the other individual is either higher up on the hierarchy or less threatening - meaning it should be fine to approach without any kind of aggression.

In this sense, licking on its own doesn't mean too much apart from trying to gain the other individual's trust or at least show them that you are not a threat. Therefore, it is important for owners to be more aware of these actions and read into them accordingly.

There may also be some medical reasons as to why your dog licks you so regularly. A 2013 study led by James R. Jugan investigated the causes of excessive licking in dogs and found that of the 991 canine cases studied, 25% suffered from anxiety while 20% had pruritus (itching). CBD Oil for dogs with anxiety could be beneficial to help alleviate those symptoms.

This itching could have been caused by allergies, infections or parasites such as fleas and mites which would explain their constant need to lick the affected area.

Another study conducted in 2016 by Sarah E. Radford and Christine Mallis investigated the influence of saliva on wound healing in dogs.

The veterinary professionals recruited 18 dogs with lacerations of various sizes, some were bathed three times a day with a saline solution while others had their wounds bathed in dog saliva three times a day.

After four weeks, the team concluded that there was no a significant difference between the two groups so licking alone cannot speed up an animal's recovery time - not unless combined with other treatments such as Medihoney is antibacterial and has been clinically proven to promote faster healing or tea tree oil which can also have similar effects.

However, if your pet ever needs any treatment or surgery then it may be required for them not to lick the affected area.

As seen in an article by Merriam-Webster, dogs are one of few animals (other than humans) with lips over their teeth which can make it difficult for vets to carry out certain procedures like surgery which would require them to be put under anesthesia or sedation.

Therefore, tying a bandage around your pet's head maybe helpful as they cannot then reach the wound and this also prevents any dirt from entering too.

## Conclusion

By now you should have some idea as to why your four-legged friend licks you so regularly and the importance behind these actions.

Whether it is due to stress or happiness, this action has been observed across multiple species including humans, and does indeed bear significance within a dog's daily routine. Check out some Dog Treats with CBD if you're looking to help calm your pup.

Therefore, it is worth trying to understand the context behind these actions and how they should be interpreted in order to best care for your pet.