- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Proposed by Abraham Maslow, this theory suggests that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. The needs are arranged in a pyramid, with basic physiological needs (such as food, water, and shelter) at the bottom, followed by safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs at the top. According to this theory, individuals strive to fulfill lower-level needs before progressing to higher-level needs.
- Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: Frederick Herzberg proposed this theory, also known as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory or the Dual Factor Theory. It suggests that there are two sets of factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction: hygiene factors and motivators. Hygiene factors, such as salary, job security, and work conditions, are essential for preventing dissatisfaction but do not directly lead to motivation. Motivators, such as recognition, achievement, and personal growth, contribute to job satisfaction and motivation.
- Expectancy Theory: Developed by Victor Vroom, the Expectancy Theory focuses on the cognitive processes underlying motivation. It suggests that people's motivation depends on their beliefs about the relationship between effort, performance, and outcomes. According to this theory, individuals are motivated when they believe that their efforts will result in successful performance and desirable outcomes.
- Goal-Setting Theory: Proposed by Edwin Locke, the Goal-Setting Theory emphasizes the importance of setting specific, challenging goals to enhance motivation. According to this theory, individuals are motivated when they have clear goals and receive feedback on their progress. Setting challenging goals that are specific and achievable can increase motivation and performance.
- Self-Determination Theory (SDT): Developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, SDT suggests that people are motivated by their innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy refers to the need for self-direction and control, competence refers to the need to feel capable and effective, and relatedness refers to the need for social connections and positive relationships. When these needs are satisfied, individuals experience intrinsic motivation and engage in behavior for its own sake.
- Equity Theory: Introduced by J. Stacy Adams, the Equity Theory focuses on the concept of fairness in motivation. According to this theory, individuals are motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly in comparison to others. People compare their inputs (e.g
Subscribe to our
This one's for you, Spock.
Owning a pet can get difficult and expensive. Sometimes, their vet bills cost hundreds of dollars just for one visit. On top of that, pets also need food, a wee wee pad for a dog, a litter box with litter for a cat, toys, and treats. Besides having to spend hundreds of dollars on them, they provide a great companion and are almost always there when you need to talk to someone. For the past six years, I have been the proud owner of my purebred Bengal cat named Spock. Although he's only seven years and four months old, he's taught me so much. Here's a few of the things that he has taught me.
It's ok to not know what you want.
If I said that he knew what he wanted at all times, I'd be lying. Sometimes, he'll want to be in the living room watching television. Sometimes, he'll want to sit on the bathmat and not let people use the bathroom in peace. At other times, he'll hide under the table in either the kitchen or the living room - or, he'll jump up on a chair or on a shelf. Owning Spock has taught me that it's fine to not know what you want because things change, and those changes could impact your decisions on what you want for yourself.
It's fine if you just want to be by yourself for a bit.
Sometimes, all we want to do is be left alone. The same applies for animals - especially for Spock. Everyone deserves some alone time for just themselves. If some of your so called friends can't respect that, then maybe they just don't respect you as a person and as their friend, and maybe you should reconsider your friendship with that person. Owning Spock has taught me this via his actions of always running away from people when all he wants to do is be alone.
It's ok to eat what you want whenever you want without feeling embarrassed about it.
With Spock, he begs for food at least four times an hour. He doesn't care if you just fed him - he will beg you for more food. Owning Spock has taught me that sometimes, you just need to eat that piece of cheesecake or that salad when you feel like it. By the end of the day, you're choosing to put whatever food you want to in your body, and you shouldn't have to provide anyone with an explanation of that.
It's ok to have some sass.
Sometimes, we're in a situation that we usually don't want to be in - like a fight with a friend, family member, the person you're in a relationship with, a group project partner, and so on. Owning Spock has taught me that you just need to do what you need to do when you're in an uncomfortable situation - and if that means adding some sass into what you're doing, then do it.
It's ok to take a nap at any time of the day.
Sometimes, we're just flat out tired and need to take a nap in order to feel refreshed. With Spock, he enjoys taking a nap about what seems like twenty times a day. Does he feel bad about it? No. It's probably because he knows he's tired and wants to gain some more energy. The same applies to us humans - so go take that nap that you've been wanting to take and don't feel bad about it.
Document the important things and moments within your life.
It's not a surprise that we all get older and experience a lot of important things and moments within our lives. Although it may seem annoying to have to constantly pull out your phone or your camera that you love using for everything to document the moment or important thing that you're going through, you won't regret it later. You'll have photos that you'll look back on later in life and you'll have memories to share with your friends and family. With that being said, here are some photos of Spock as he's gotten older.
You're Your Own Best Friend
It's fun to see all of the selfies on social media, they are everywhere. I see pictures with pouty lips, duck lips and pucker lips. I see smokey eyes, huge fake lashes and nicely done nose jobs, boob jobs and butt lifts. Women working out in spandex, tiny tops and flip flops. I see tight abs and firm butts, manicured nails and toes, up dos and flowing hair. "Wow", I think to myself," I could apply tons of make-up, spend an hour on my hair, pose all day and not look like that. Maybe I need a longer stick!"
I went shopping, to a trendy store, yesterday. Really cute clothes. I was trying on this adorable sun dress when I caught a glimpse of my, not so defined, arms in the mirror. UGH! I nearly said it out loud. Then I remembered seeing my friend in a similar dress thinking how cool, comfortable and cute she looked. "She's about my size", I thought..."Maybe, I just look bad in my eyes".
Why are we so hard on ourselves? Why do we base our self esteem on our deflated self perception? Why do we compare ourselves with other women? Why do we find physical flaws that friends never notice...until we point them out? Why are we consistently critical of how we look?
Time to let it go, to start treating ourselves like we treat our friends, that is...if you are a good friend...It's okay to take a good look, evaluate and make an honest assessment. That's the only way to make adjustments...with kinder eyes. Eyes that are accepting, loving and gentle.
That way the selfie stick wont have to be so long, I'll wear my new dress, duck lip it with my red lips, smokey eyes and mascaraed lashes...and gaze upon it, as though I didn't know me, with kinder self-eyes.
Rap is more than the F-bomb and a beat. Read what artists like Fetty, Schoolboy Q, Drake, and 2Pac can teach you.
On the surface, rap songs may carry a surface perception of negativity. However, exploring their lyrics reveals profound hidden depth.Despite occasional profanity, it's crucial to look beyond it. Rap transcends mere wordplay; these 25 song lyrics impart valuable life lessons, offering insights that extend beyond the conventional perception of rap music.
1. "I ain't rich yet, but you know I ain't broke" -- "White Iverson" by Post Malone
You might not be successful yet, but you're not a failure either, so keep doing what you're doing.
2. "I only love it when you touch me, not feel me / When I'm f***ed up, that's the real me" -- "The Hills" by The Weekend
Don't blame it on the alcohol because the real you comes out when you have alcohol in your system.
3. "You gon' have to do more than just (say it)" -- "Say It" by Tony Lanez
Actions speak louder than words.
4. "He only f***ed you over cause you let him" -- "Don't" by Bryson Tiller
Bryson Tiller - Don't (Explicit Version)"Don't" by Bryson Tiller Listen to Bryson Tiller: https://brysontiller.lnk.to/listenYD Watch more Bryson Tiller videos: ...
Yes, he screwed you over, and that's not cool, but you let that happen to you. Have more self-worth and don't let guys screw you over.
5. "I try to forget but it's hard to forgive" -- "Thought It Was a Drought" by Future
Forgive, but never forget.
6. "Whatever happened just had to happen" -- "I Know" by Big Sean ft. Jhené Aiko
Big Sean - I Know ft. Jhené Aiko (Official Music Video)D A R K S K Y P A R A D I S E AVAILABLE NOW! Deluxe: http://smarturl.it/DarkSkyParadiseDex?IQid=vevo Standard: ...
Everything happens for a reason.
7. "It goes down in the DM (it go down) it go down in the DM (it go down, it go... down)" -- "Down In the DM" by Yo Gotti
Yo Gotti - Down In the DM (Official Music Video)Download "The Art of Hustle" at: iTunes: http://smarturl.it/TheArtofHustle Amazon: http://smarturl.it/TheArtofHustle_Amzn Google ...
Welcome to our generation's form of dating. If he/she DM's you, it is about to go down.
8. "I mean who am I to hold your past against you?" -- "Work" by Rihanna ft. Drake
Rihanna - Work (Explicit) ft. DrakeGet Rihanna's eighth studio album ANTI now: Download on TIDAL: http://smarturl.it/downloadANTI Download on iTunes: ...
The past is the past.
9. "See your heart ain't meant for breaking" -- "Studio" by Schoolboy Q ft. BJ The Chicago Kid
ScHoolboy Q - Studio ft. BJ The Chicago KidScHoolboy Q - Studio (Explicit) "Oxymoron" available now Http://smarturl.it/oxymoronq.
Hearts are not meant for breaking!!!
10. "Change the game sh*t, like it ain't sh*t'" -- "I'm On" by Lil Debbie
Lil Debbie - I'm On (Audio)Purchase 'Debbie' here https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/debbie/id1124223657.
Change the game with no effort and with confidence.
11. "Let's get caught in the moment" -- "Promises" by Wiz Khalifa
Wiz Khalifa - Promises [Official Video]BlaccHollywood available now http://smarturl.it/blacchollywood See Wiz in your city this summer http://boysofzummer.com ...
Take time and smell the roses.
12. "I can see them haters talkin' / But it do not phase me" -- "Made Me" by Snootie Wild ft. K Camp
Snootie Wild ft. K Camp - Made Me (Official Video)Download “Go Mode” at iTunes: http://smarturl.it/GoM Download “Go Mode” at Amazon: http://smarturl.it/SW_GM Spotify: ...
Don't let people get to you. If someone is hating on you, you must be doing something right.
13. "F*** with me, then I f**k with you / You don't f**k with me, my n**** f*** you too" -- "F*ck With You" by Tyga
Treat others how you want to be treated.
14. "They tryna take my blessin's away" -- "Alright" by Logic ft. Big Sean
Logic ft. Big Sean - Alright (Official Audio)The official version of Logic's "Alright" audio featuring Big Sean, off Logic's 'Under Pressure' album which is out now on Visionary ...
People are always going to try to take away your happiness.
15. "You getting on my nerves with them questions" -- "Come Get Her" by Rae Sremmurd
Rae Sremmurd - Come Get Her (Explicit) (Official Video)SremmLife” available now! iTunes: http://smarturl.it/SremmLife Google Play: http://smarturl.it/SremmLifeGP Amazon: ...
Questioning a person is annoying -- have some trust.
16. "I don't f*** with these niggas cause they shady" -- "Preach" by Young Dolph
Young Dolph "Preach" (WSHH Premiere - Official Music Video)The official WorldStarHipHop video premiere of Young Dolph's "Preach". Young Dolph's "High Quality Street Music 4: American ...
People are shady and you need to be careful who you surround yourself with.
17. "Let's just be honest, let's just be real" -- "Be Real" by Kid Ink ft. DeJ Loaf
Kid Ink - Be Real (Explicit) ft. DeJ LoafKid Ink "Full Speed" Available Now! iTunes: http://smarturl.it/iFullSpeed?IQid=yt Amazon: http://smarturl.it/aFullSpeed?IQid=yt ...
Honesty is the best policy.
18. "I'm already in love with myself / So in love with myself" -- "F*ck Love" by Iggy Azalea
Iggy Azalea - Fuck LoveFrom the album "The new classic".
19. "Don't waste time, I got six watches" -- "Flex (Ooh, Ooh, Ooh)" by Rich Homie Quan
Rich Homie Quan - Flex (Ooh, Ooh, Ooh)Check out the official music video for "Flex (Ooh, Ooh, Ooh)" by Rich Homie Quan For the single, "Flex (Ooh, Ooh, Ooh)". Available ...
Time is money, so don't waste mine or yours.
20. "There's an old saying in Tennessee - I know it's in Texas - probably in Tennessee that says fool me once, shame on - shame on you. If you fool me we can't get fooled again" -- "No Role Modelz" by J. Cole
You can only make a mistake once because the next time you make the same mistake, it was a choice.
21. "Solo ride until I die/ Cause I got me for life" -- "Me, Myself & I" by G-Eazy ft. Bebe Rexha
G-Eazy & Bebe Rexha - Me, Myself & I (Official Video)Official Video for “Me, Myself & I” by G-Eazy and Bebe Rexha. Listen to G-Eazy: https://G-Eazy.lnk.to/listenYD Watch more G-Eazy ...
Sometimes you're the only one that has you and that's okay.
22. "Cause I'm troubled by the things that I see" -- "Good Lovin" by Ludacris
The world can be a cold, troubling place.
23. "See you had a lot of crooks tryna steal your heart" -- "How to Love" by Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne - How To Love (Official Music Video)Music video by Lil Wayne performing How To Love (Shazam Version). © 2011 Cash Money Records Inc.
Don't settle for a crook, because if he steals your heart, he can break it.
24. "I ain't playing no games, I need you" -- "Again" by Fetty Wap
Games will get you nowhere, so be like Fetty and don't play no games, because, more than likely, we need you too.
25. "It's a struggle everyday, gotta roll on" -- "Everyday Struggle" by 2Pac
2Pac - Everyday Struggle (Hold On Be Strong)2Pac Hold On Be Strong Everyday Struggle Remix Tupac Shakur Makaveli Thug Life Music Video --- Please comment, rate and ...
Life is hard, but you just have to keep on keeping on.
Maybe don't try them all in one day...
My 21st birthday is finally almost here. In honor of finally turning 21, I thought I'd share 21 fun drinks since it's finally legal for me to drink them.
Some of these drinks are basic, but some of them are a little more interesting. I thought they all looked pretty good and worth trying, so choose your favorites to enjoy at your big birthday bash!
This one is kind of basic but there are many different flavors to choose from!
2. Tequila Sunrise
This one is similar to a Sex on the Beach, but with a bit of a twist.
3. Vodka Lemonade
A simple and basic drink!
4. Lemon Drop Shot
Sweet but sour!
A frozen take on the classic rosé!
6. Moscow Mule
The mugs are always cute too.
7. Bahama Mama
A nice tropical one for you!
A classic drink and a good one to pair with brunch.
There are a bunch of different versions of this drink. These can be some crazy but interesting mixes and are worth trying at least once. Maybe even share it with some friends!
11. Red, White, & Blue Layered Slushee
This is a fun themed one you can try for 4th of July!
12. "Adult" Shakes
There are many different variations to this one- so you can pick a flavor that you like! It's also a nice cool treat for the summer.
13. Sex on the Beach
A classic drink!
14. Blue Hawaiian Long Island
This one is a mix of a long island and a blue hawaiian.
15. Fire Shot
These look cool but be careful with these! You should probably blow out the flame before you drink it.
16. French Toast Shot
An interesting but sweet one!
17. Jungle Juice
As you can tell by the name, this drink has a lot mixed into it. There are a million different versions of this, but it's a good idea for parties.
18. Champagne Pink Lemonade
Refreshing and bubbly!
19. Galaxy Cocktail
This one is a fun looking drink for summer!
20. Hippie Juice
A great summer drink!
21. Piña Colada
Do you like getting caught in the rain?
Enjoy trying these drinks, especially ones you haven't had before! Some of these you can order while you're out, but some I suggest trying to make at home as well! Have fun with it...as long as you're 21 as well. ;)
*Please drink responsibly!*
The names and dates of the reigns of the first four kings, as well as the alternation of Sabin and Latin names, are more legendary than historical. The last three kings, of Etruscan origin, have an existence which seems less uncertain.
It is evident that all this is only a legend although archeology shows us little by little that these kings if they did not exist as the ancient history, describes them, have at least in the very Outlines were real as chief of a shepherd’s tribe. The period when kings ruled Rome could estimate at 245 years.
1. Romulus: 1st King of Rome
Romulus is a name that means, simply, "Roman" as written by Dominique Briquel (archaeologist, a specialist in Etruscology and pre-Roman times): "the name of Romulus is taken from Rome", which suggests that this character is a pure invention of the legend. Nothing makes more reference to a tale than the founding of Rome by the twins Romulus and Remus. We this legend well by the writings of the ancient Romans, notably Cicero, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Livy and Plutarch, let us not forget for a purely imaginary reading Virgil. In fact, the only traces that remain of this period are archaeological works that confirm that a city was built on the Palatine in the 8th century. BC
The myth tells us that her mother's name was Rhea Silvia, and her father would have known to be the god Mars who came to earth attracted by her beauty and raped her in a wood. She was the daughter of the king of Alba, Numitor, who had been ousted from the throne by his brother Amulius. She also bore the name of Ilia, she was obliged by her uncle to become a Vestal, devoted to honor, and, what was most important in the eyes of this uncle, to remain childless. But the god Mars arrived, raped her, she gave birth to twins. Romulus would have been born in second position and thus would have had a nickname: "Altellus" = the little other, opinion defended by Festus; in the eyes of legend, the fact that he spent an abandoned childhood is a sign that he belongs to the domain of heroism. And legend, always, wanted them to be saved from the death that Amelius had reserved for them by those who were charged to execute them, they were moved by their tender age, they deposited them in a wicker basket at the edge of the Tiber.
2. Numa Pompilius: 2nd king of Rome after Romulus
It is of Sabine origin, this origin for early kings, is held to be entirely legendary. According to this legend, he was elected by the Senate after a year interregnum. He was a very peaceful and religious king. He is said to have been the founder of the rites of the Roman religion. He created the good and bad days. He constituted the college of Pontiffs, Flamines, Augures, Vestals, Saliens, Féciaux. He was the builder of the temple of Janus which was to remain with the doors open or closed following a state of war or peace.
"... he raised the temple of Janus. This temple, built at the bottom of Argilete, became the symbol of peace and war. Open, it was the signal that called the citizens to arms; closed, he announced that peace reigned among all the neighboring nations. " Livy, 1, 19.
He made 11 shields and placed them in his royal palace ( Regia ), at the birth of this legend, we find the fact that he is said to have received from the hands of Jupiter or Mars a shield (ancile).
Finding that the right of property was not sufficiently protected, he created the gods Terms, which were grossly carved beings that delimited the domains, they served as demarcation, death could punish anyone who touched them. He instituted a new calendar, he added two months (January, February) to the old one, which was only ten months old. He thus synchronized the solar year with the lunar year. Always the legend tells that he was very influenced by the nymph Egeria who lived in a wood near the door Capene. He married her on the death of his wife Tatia who was the daughter of Titus Tatius, the one who ruled for a short time together with Romulus.
3. Tullus Hostilius: 3rd King of Rome, of Sabine origin
Roman historians tell us that a peaceful king succeeded a warrior king. He was the grandson of a companion of Romulus. He embodies the third function: war, functions defined by DUMEZIL, he compares it to the god INDRA. He was elected king by the Roman people at the end of an interruption that lasted one year. All his life he led Rome to war with his neighbors; This is how he defeated the Veii (VEIES city) and the Fidénates (FIDENE city), Etruscan cities. He declared war on Albe la Longue. In the midst of a fight between the two armies, the Albans and Romans relied on champions; this is how the famous episode of Horaces and Curiaces took place, whose outcome is well known. He conquered the city of Albe (the mother city of Rome) and deported his population to Rome. In the midst of all these wars, he had time to build the house where the Senate met: the CURIA HOSTILIA . He is also at the origin of the curule chair, lictors,) next Macrobe. At the end of his life, he will become mad and perish struck by the thunderbolt that set fire to his palace, it is said that it was Jupiter, himself, who would have launched it because the rituals concerning him, during a sacrifice, would have been respected.
4. Ancus Marcius: 4th king of Rome, of Sabine origin
The legend says of him that he reigned from 641 BC to 616 BC He was the grandson of Numa Pompilius : "The assembled assemblies, Ancus Marcus was elected king by the people. The Senate ratified the election. This prince was grandson of Numa by his daughter. "Titus Live, 1, 32. It should be noted that royalty was elective. Once on the throne, he restores religious practices that had been forgotten in the time of his predecessor. Despite this spiritual side, he was also a warrior king who had to fight against his neighbors; in particular, he had to face the Latins whom he beat, he deported them to the foot of Mount Aventine who then left Rome. It was a builder, in particular we owe him the SUBLICUS bridge which, first, crossed the Tiber. Legend has it that he was at the origin of the port of OSTIE but archeology shows that this creation was later. His wife is initially, according to legend, the adoration of a goddess: " Venus Calva ", with other women, she would have been suffering from a mysterious disease that would have made them bald. To soften the queen's pain, he had a statue of Venus, who was bald, made. At his death, his son was not old enough to rule, the crown was given to Tarquin the Elder who had gained his confidence and was another himself.
5. Tarquin the Elder: 5th King of Rome, of Etruscan origin
He created the golden bubble that was the hallmark of youth with the pretext toga. According to Macrobius, these insignia were first of all rewards which he gave to his fourteen-year-old son when he killed a Sabin.
6. Servius Tullius: 6th King of Rome
From his real name MASTARNA or MACSTARNA. He was the second king of Rome of Etruscan origin. According to tradition, he reigned from 578 BC to 53. Historians often compare it to Romulus, especially for the miraculous nature of his birth. It would be born of a slave, as I said above, and the appearance of a phallus in the middle of the flames (hence the reference to Vulcan, god of fire); as for Romulus, following some ancient historians, it would have been conceived by a virile member. It appeared in the middle of an intense focus. In fact, following the Emperor Claudius, who was a great specialist in Etruscan history, he would have been, quite simply, a companion ( sodalis ) to a bandleader: VIBENNA. One of the principal acts of the legislation which he established was to define the task of a sensor. Every Roman citizen had to register himself in the register of the "cens" and had to declare all the property of which he was the possessor under penalty; in case failing to be beaten and sold as a slave. He perished, murdered, by a son of Tarquin the Elder, Tarquin the Superb, married to his daughter, TULLIA, who, at the height of horror, rolled his chariot on the body of his father.
7. Tarquin the Superb: 7th and last king of Rome
Like its two predecessors, it was of Etruscan origin. He would be the son or grandson of Tarquin the Elder. He ascended the throne in the blood of Servius Tullius, who was also his father-in-law, whom he had murdered. But this relationship, according to historians of our time, has no historical truth. He continued his reign as ancient historians describe it, showing his dictatorial ways. "For all his rights were in force, he who had neither the votes of the people nor the consent of the Senate. Not being able to count on the affection of the citizens, he had to reign by terror. " Livy, I, 49. It is at the origin of the annual festivals of the Latin Fairies which commemorate the assimilation by Rome of 47 tribes of Lazio. He forbade the funeral of the king whom he succeeded, and he eliminated the senators who had been faithful to him.
1. Brittany Morgan, National Writer's Society
2. Radhi, SUNY Stony Brook
3. Kristen Haddox, Penn State University
4. Jennifer Kustanovich, SUNY Stony Brook
5. Clare Regelbrugge, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign