The Practice Of Psychology In Japan
Start writing a post
Student Life

The Practice Of Psychology In Japan

Psychology

3729
The Practice Of Psychology In Japan

Cross-Cultural research has significantly furthered the understanding of concepts that deal with self and intelligence as it relates to the intertwining of cultures all across the globe. This understanding continues to evolve as these researchers work towards the common goal of psychology as a science. In Japan the development of psychology has posed on the opposite side of the spectrum of psychological development that has been ideal in most western countries. This difference persisted since the mid-nineteenth century and the opening of the country after its long feudal period (Bosc, 2010). The emphasis of psychology in this country is generated towards the idea of the heart. Unlike western countries where the study of psychology is based on the soul, the heart or mind is what Japanese psychologists view as the focus point in their studies. This has always been the way academic psychology treated the mind (Ashitaka & Shimada, 2014).

The emergence of experimental psychology in Japan started in the late 19th and early 20th century. This development begun mainly through exchange with the U.S. Dozens of Japanese students started studying psychology in the U.S without the authorization of the government of Japan. These students then returned to Japan and opened the first laboratories of experimental psychology in the country. One of the most influential figures in this movement was Yujiro Motora who studied from 1864 to 1873 and obtained his doctorate degree at Boston University and the Johns Hopkins University. His laboratory which is located at Tokyo Imperial University has become one of the main research centres in psychology of Japan (Bosc, 2010). The laboratory that Motora designed included some of the most innovative psychological laboratory spaces ever imagined in Japan. Among these spaces included a Heliostat, Dark, Vision, Silent, Sound, Battery and Lecture Room. There also were Time rooms, a library, workshop and professor’s office. It was clear that Motora had plans to advance the study of psychology in Japan.

After several years of advancement in experimental psychology, the types of experiments that were executed became more sophisticated. Experiments that focused on the relationships between emotions, blood pressure and respiration using pneumograph and a plethysmograph occurred. More experiments on the relationship between emotions and fatigue of grasping power using a dynamometer also arose with the development of newer technologies dedicated to psychological research. Despite the advantages that Japan had been gaining with the newly growing practice of psychology, some of its citizens were not pleased with the work that was being performed. This disapproval was evident during the era of psychological associations and the dissemination of psychology in Japan. This disapproval for most non-academic possessing individuals stem from cultural differences. They have proven to create difficulties in introducing psychology to university students in Japan in the introductory psychology lectures. This is simply because these students possess a culturally specific understanding of psychology that differs from that of academic psychology (Ashitaka & Shimada, 2014).

Many of the psychological associations in Japan have encountered various problems and many have disappeared from main stream society. According to Bosc, the only association that remains visible and active is the Japanese Psychological Association which was created in 1927 under the leadership of Matataro Matsumoto. Matsumoto was a student of Motora and this fact demonstrates the lasting impact that Motora had on the development of Psychology in Japan. A product of his work continue to invent and create lasting change around the discipline of psychology. The Japanese Psychological Association initially concentrated on six areas: general psychology, educational psychology, industrial psychology, law psychology, military psychology and clinical psychology.

Years after the development of the Japanese Psychological Association, the psychologists begun to focus more on the development of a curriculum that focused on introducing clinical psychology and counseling. It was not until the early 1990s that this strong demand surfaced. It was clear that Japan was still staggering behind the United States who had begun this form of psychology about four decades prior to this time. Counseling was introduced through American teachings in academia and university environments. Although it was not easily received, it could have been a lot better if more professionals assisted in the process and if the theories applied to the Japanese culture. It was hard for Japanese people to determine the true meaning of counseling. In 2004, the first draft to better define the term was coined: a scientific function conducted through a human relationship in which the client is fully respected by the counsellor (Bosc, 2010). The Japanese Association of Counseling decided that this practice would perform three major objective that included promoting human development, preventing problems and helping solve practical problems.

Over the years, psychology as a practice in Japan has gain more creditability but continues to find its place in the country. It has, over the past century, made great strides in becoming a well-respected discipline by those that still find flaws in it application. Japan displays a bigger concern for the dramatic social changes that psychology has caused its nation versus the influence that it could have on the well-being of each individual person. Psychodynamics, for example, didn’t succeed to be truly accepted in Japan and the concepts that Freud introduced in America was also popularly rejected. The American influence in the country definitely has a lot to do with the progress that is being made in the area of psychology. Once the citizens of the country recognize the true power of psychology and have it translated to theories that most closes mirrors their culture they will find it easier to accept this effective discipline.


Report this Content
This article has not been reviewed by Odyssey HQ and solely reflects the ideas and opinions of the creator.
Student Life

Social Media Or Soul Media

To the generation that cares way too much about affirmation.

21
Emma Smith
  • This semester I am taking the ever so famous class, Writing 101. Walking into it, I had heard the horror stories about each major assignment. I have to admit, it’s not a class that I am fond of. But, major assignment #2 got me thinking, we had to create a research question based off of a topic that we are interested in.

Two weeks prior, I watched a very interesting documentary on Netflix. Miss Representation was recommended to me by one of my friends and I have to say the topic is absolutely mind blowing. Social Media and Female Body Image. How Social Media makes girls see this unnatural perfection of ‘beauty’ that really doesn’t exist. But female body image isn’t the only thing affected by social media.

Keep Reading... Show less
Featured

Sex And The Church

A letter to fellow believers.

337
Amanda Hayes

I know many of you just read that title and thought it was scandalous to see something so “risque” in the same setting as something holy. Well guess what – sex is part of that. Everyone seems to think they are separate, which makes since because most people treat them as though they are complete polar opposites. Shall we think this through?

Keep Reading... Show less
Tumblr

Chick-fil-A, I love you.

Keep Reading... Show less
Featured

An open letter to my father

What you did sounds dumb to me

2265
An open letter to my father
The Truth About My Parents' Divorce

Considering im 18 now & you're one of the best men i've ever met since you have a child; me. I want you to know that I love you, more than anyone, I love you. I don't forgive you for the way you hurt my mother. I'm hurt because you broke our family. Thing went down hill the day you found Laquita. You we're distant & shortly after my mother turned into the coldest, saddest women to walk past me. She's my best friend & so are you. Not one day goes by where I don't wonder what she did wrong. How on earth could you trade your family & the women who loved you unconditionally for a home wrecker? Sounds dumb to me.

Keep Reading... Show less
Featured

Is God Reckless?

Exploring the controversy behind the popular worship song "Reckless Love"

2747
Is God Reckless?


First things first I do not agree with people getting so caught up in the specific theology of a song that they forget who they are singing the song to. I normally don't pay attention to negative things that people say about worship music, but the things that people were saying caught my attention. For example, that the song was not biblical and should not be sung in churches. Worship was created to glorify God, and not to argue over what kind of theology the artist used to write the song. I was not made aware of the controversy surrounding the popular song "Reckless Love" by Cory Asbury until about a week ago, but now that I am aware this is what I have concluded.The controversy surrounding the song is how the term reckless is used to describe God's love. This is the statement that Cory Asbury released after many people questioned his theology regarding his lyrics. I think that by trying to clarify what the song was saying he added to the confusion behind the controversy.This is what he had to say,
"Many have asked me for clarity on the phrase, "reckless love". Many have wondered why I'd use a "negative" word to describe God. I've taken some time to write out my thoughts here. I hope it brings answers to your questions. But more than that, I hope it brings you into an encounter with the wildness of His love.When I use the phrase, "the reckless love of God", I'm not saying that God Himself is reckless. I am, however, saying that the way He loves, is in many regards, quite so. What I mean is this: He is utterly unconcerned with the consequences of His actions with regards to His own safety, comfort, and well-being. His love isn't crafty or slick. It's not cunning or shrewd. In fact, all things considered, it's quite childlike, and might I even suggest, sometimes downright ridiculous. His love bankrupted heaven for you. His love doesn't consider Himself first. His love isn't selfish or self-serving. He doesn't wonder what He'll gain or lose by putting Himself out there. He simply gives Himself away on the off-chance that one of us might look back at Him and offer ourselves in return.His love leaves the ninety-nine to find the one every time."
Some people are arguing that song is biblical because it makes reference to the scripture from Matthew 28:12-14 and Luke 15. Both of these scriptures talk about the parable of the lost sheep and the shepherd. The shepherd symbolizes God and the lost sheep are people that do not have a relationship with God. On the other hand some people are arguing that using the term reckless, referring to God's character is heretical and not biblical. I found two articles that discuss the controversy about the song.The first article is called, "Reckless Love" By Cory Asbury - "Song Meaning, Review, and Worship Leading Tips." The writer of the article, Jake Gosselin argues that people are "Making a mountain out of a molehill" and that the argument is foolish. The second article, "God's Love is not Reckless, Contrary to What You Might Sing" by author Andrew Gabriel argues that using the term reckless is irresponsible and that you cannot separate Gods character traits from God himself. For example, saying that God's love is reckless could also be argued that God himself is reckless. Reckless is typically not a word that someone would use to describe God and his love for us. The term reckless is defined as (of a person or their actions) without thinking or caring about the consequences of an action. However, Cory Asbury is not talking about a person, he is talking about God's passionate and relentless pursuit of the lost. While I would not have chosen the word reckless, I understand what he was trying to communicate through the song. Down below I have linked two articles that might be helpful if you are interested in reading more about the controversy.


Keep Reading... Show less

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Facebook Comments