Karl Popper Vs. The Demarcation Problem

Karl Popper Vs. The Demarcation Problem

Karl Popper once made a valiant effort to logically define the limits of science, but failed. Here's why.
500
views

Karl Popper’s falsification criterion for determining the difference between science and pseudoscience (also called fake science) is insufficient as a solution to the demarcation problem: the problem of determining what is and isn't science, because it does not rule out pseudosciences like astrology from being considered.

One objection to this argument is that Popper’s theory actually does rule out astrology as a pseudoscience, rather than a science. Since eventually pseudosciences will have to resort to ad hoc explanations for their mistakes, whereas sciences make claims that are either falsified or at the very least falsifiable. An example of science is the theory of planetary gravitational orbits, which was subjected to testing when calculations appeared to go wrong. If this test had been falsified, then science would have had to mark potentially the entire scientific paradigm that it existed false. On the other hand, astrologers will never shift their entire paradigm. Instead, they will simply continue to explain away their inaccurate ideas until falsification becomes impossible.

This objection must be responded to by pointing out that it is not always true. Sometimes, what many would consider pseudoscience does make radical changes to its core beliefs based on falsification. A new sign was added to astrology, for example, in response to tests concerning the future and the rotation of the planet on its axis. Alternatively, at times science and the scientific community that practices, it seems unwilling to change in the face of falsification. For a long time, scientists stubbornly refused to believe that x-rays were harmful to pregnant women and their babies, because the person who made this discovery, Dr. Alice Stewart, was a woman. Eventually, her work did convince other scientists to believe rightly that x-rays could be dangerous, but this was not so much in response to the falsification of their previous theories. It was in response to other pressures, and it took years for her data to be accepted in the scientific community.

As such, it can be seen that although appearances may point to its correctness at times, Karl Popper’s falsification criterion is lacking as a solution to the demarcation problem, because it does not truly define science or pseudoscience at all times.

Cover Image Credit: Saima Meditation

Popular Right Now

It's Time To Thank Your First Roommate

Not the horror story kind of roommate, but the one that was truly awesome.
879293
views

Nostalgic feelings have recently caused me to reflect back on my freshman year of college. No other year of my life has been filled with more ups and downs, and highs and lows, than freshman year. Throughout all of the madness, one factor remained constant: my roommate. It is time to thank her for everything. These are only a few of the many reasons to do so, and this goes for roommates everywhere.

You have been through all the college "firsts" together.

If you think about it, your roommate was there through all of your first college experiences. The first day of orientation, wishing you luck on the first days of classes, the first night out, etc. That is something that can never be changed. You will always look back and think, "I remember my first day of college with ____."

You were even each other's first real college friend.

You were even each other's first real college friend.

Months before move-in day, you were already planning out what freshman year would be like. Whether you previously knew each other, met on Facebook, or arranged to meet in person before making any decisions, you made your first real college friend during that process.

SEE ALSO: 18 Signs You're A Little Too Comfortable With Your Best Friends

The transition from high school to college is not easy, but somehow you made it out on the other side.

It is no secret that transitioning from high school to college is difficult. No matter how excited you were to get away from home, reality hit at some point. Although some people are better at adjusting than others, at the times when you were not, your roommate was there to listen. You helped each other out, and made it through together.

Late night talks were never more real.

Remember the first week when we stayed up talking until 2:00 a.m. every night? Late night talks will never be more real than they were freshman year. There was so much to plan for, figure out, and hope for. Your roommate talked, listened, laughed, and cried right there with you until one of you stopped responding because sleep took over.

You saw each other at your absolute lowest.

It was difficult being away from home. It hurt watching relationships end and losing touch with your hometown friends. It was stressful trying to get in the swing of college level classes. Despite all of the above, your roommate saw, listened, and strengthened you.

...but you also saw each other during your highest highs.

After seeing each other during the lows, seeing each other during the highs was such a great feeling. Getting involved on campus, making new friends, and succeeding in classes are only a few of the many ways you have watched each other grow.

There was so much time to bond before the stresses of college would later take over.

Freshman year was not "easy," but looking back on it, it was more manageable than you thought at the time. College only gets busier the more the years go on, which means less free time. Freshman year you went to lunch, dinner, the gym, class, events, and everything else possible together. You had the chance to be each other's go-to before it got tough.

No matter what, you always bounced back to being inseparable.

Phases of not talking or seeing each other because of business and stress would come and go. Even though you physically grew apart, you did not grow apart as friends. When one of you was in a funk, as soon as it was over, you bounced right back. You and your freshman roommate were inseparable.

The "remember that one time, freshman year..." stories never end.

Looking back on freshman year together is one of my favorite times. There are so many stories you have made, which at the time seemed so small, that bring the biggest laughs today. You will always have those stories to share together.

SEE ALSO: 15 Things You Say To Your Roommates Before Going Out

The unspoken rule that no matter how far apart you grow, you are always there for each other.

It is sad to look back and realize everything that has changed since your freshman year days. You started college with a clean slate, and all you really had was each other. Even though you went separate ways, there is an unspoken rule that you are still always there for each other.

Your old dorm room is now filled with two freshmen trying to make it through their first year. They will never know all the memories that you made in that room, and how it used to be your home. You can only hope that they will have the relationship you had together to reflect on in the years to come.


Cover Image Credit: Katie Ward

Related Content

Connect with a generation
of new voices.

We are students, thinkers, influencers, and communities sharing our ideas with the world. Join our platform to create and discover content that actually matters to you.

Learn more Start Creating

13 Thoughts Broadcast Journalism Majors Have When Piecing Together Their First News Story

Quiet on the set.

243
views

So you've decided that you want to be a Broadcast Journalist?

Many different thoughts go through you're while trying to first off figure out what story you want to pursue. After that, it's just a matter of getting everything that is needed for it and then putting it together.

For all clarity and purposes, I have already turned in my first news story, however as I was completing it, some (if not all) of these thoughts (or a variation of them) came across my mind at some point during the process.

1. Ok, so what are the important parts to my story?

book

And how do I convey those things to my viewers?

2. What b-roll should I get?

B-roll is supplemental or alternative footage intercut with the main shot.

3. Do I have all the interviews I need?

interview

Who are the essential figures in this story?

4. What's my angle? How do I stick to it?

camera angle

Who do I need to interview for it?

5. What questions should I ask in my interview?

questions

And more importantly, What type of questions will get me the answers I want?

6. What are the important facts?

facts

Should they all be included?

7. Do my voice overs cover everything that my interviews don't?

interview

What else is needed for this story?

8. Agh, my video is over the 1 minute and 30 seconds allowed time.

ughh

Do I reduce it or do I leave it as is? I guess it depends on how much its over.

9. How should I say my tageline at the end of the video?

tag line

The tagline is when the reporter says their name and their station affiliation at the end of their story.

10. Should I include a standup? Where should it be?

news

What do I want to say?

11. Should I include a graphic?

news graphics

Is there something that can be said in a list form that the viewers need to see? Is it symptoms of a disease? Event details?

12. How do I make my interviews connect with my voice overs?

simple

Does what I am saying make sense?

13. What does my script need to look like?

script

Should I add a NAT pop here? What SOT (Sound on Tape) do I want to use?

Related Content

Facebook Comments