The Write Word
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Student Life

The Write Word

Conceiving the Composition

The Write Word


In school, subjects such as history, science, or math can become self-absorbing and can easily intensify when a student is required to put those concepts into writing for an assignment or a test. In that situation, writing can seem more of an assiduous undertaking than just another whip of the pen or tug of the keyboard. At times, the overbearing dilemma is that once you have determined a proper starting point, of where to go from there and how to verify that you are on the right track or even knowing whether the finished product actually meets the expectation of the assignment or the instructor.

A timely matter of concern in writing courses, by preponderance of observation, is to reveal the ideal method for pairing of words that are worthy of attention by the readership at large. Through recollection of prior experience, the virtues of several indispensable approaches is set forth. One way is by identifying the source and function of each implement relied upon by practitioners of literature. The most common ones are included, leaving the rest for independent discovery. In this manner, common writing methods are set as a basis for further refinement of drafts. In a thorough way, improvement of the narrative effect of the essay emerges through practical approaches such as proofreading.

This is an examination of the more common writing challenges faced by many college students. The earlier section covers the problems students encounter and suggests ways to eliminate them. The latter section gives a set of options for composing an essay.

First Writing Perspective

There are plenty of ways to enhance the learning experience through writing. Initially, the readings should provide an ample source of information to begin thinking constructively about the topic in particular and the world in general. The college campus is the best place to explore since it provides resources such as libraries and professionals in their field. Next, the courses will guide your thinking into the direction of intellectual growth and can serve as a starting point for finding creative ways to develop clear and thought-provoking analysis in written form. Lastly, fellow classmates will, to a certain extent, instill a passion for discovery and intuition that will resound in your writing.

The main obstacle to completing a writing assignment is being unfamiliar with the subject or being unable to relate with the material. In addition, students are primarily inexperienced writers. The most practical approach for clarifying and simplifying the question is to check the meaning or background of the topic being questioned. The best way to accomplish this is by using a standard dictionary or an extensive encyclopedia. This should eliminate any lingering doubt or minimize the complexity of the requirement.

Once momentum has been achieved, there are likely to be times when the pace slows due to repetitiveness or disorientation. This is when another reference text can help to spur a new idea or expression. A thesaurus contains terms that mean the same thing as the word you are using but in a different context. At the very least, it can help you reconsider your current stance in a way that may steer your writing closer to completion.

These reference books are necessary at the beginning of the writing assignment. They enable the student to explore an unfamiliar or complex question, to gather information to include in the final draft, and to arrange categories of discussion in written form.

As a starting point, the section above provides direction on establishing patterns or revealing gaps in the student's knowledge about a given field of study. A student usually attempts to write a report, an essay, or a research project with little more than his desk, some paper, the course textbook, and a pencil. Although it is often more than others have to start with, it is still only about a third of what is used by top performing students.

An experienced teacher will suggest that the students read all types of publications in order to become knowledgeable with their writing assignment. A good source of information or detail are newspapers, magazines, and novels. The reason periodicals are a good source of knowledge is that they provide the essentials in a concise format, often with a graphical representation of more complicated theories and facts; at times, adding commentary by credible sources in the profession. A novel by a prolific author or expert is another way to understand the overall structure of the topic you are going to write about in a more insightful and congenial manner.

The reference books listed earlier are vital for understanding the terms and concepts that will inevitably arise in newspapers, magazines, and academic journals. The novel can be useful in showing the student the various styles that are used for effectively relating information to an audience, in one form or another. Of course, the student will not immediately know to turn to these sources without having first been reminded to do so by a parent, teacher, or coach. In the absence of such, the student is left to seek the advice from peers or role models portrayed in the media or those they encounter throughout the daily routine. For the reluctant student, there are people and places they can turn to help meet the deadline.

After the writing is stable it is advisable to review, examine, and question the content, the structure, and the accuracy of the material. The student can more than likely spot obvious errors of grammar, vague phrasing, or inadequate content. At times, the teacher can provide some level of support but will not cover the entire assignment due to time constraint. Still, some students are left to rely on other school administrators that may be more willing to take a closer look; among them, a different teacher, a librarian, a coach, a senior student, or other members of an academic community.

Once all of these factors have been set in motion, the student is ready to begin the actual writing assignment. Begin by interpreting the question to the point where a sensible attempt can be made at: setting your stance on the matter, supplying examples from reliable sources, and including opposing viewpoints in order to make a well-rounded and less narrow argument.

The best way to go about this is to closely examine the question in its entirety. Then begin to read (or re-read) the text, sentence by sentence and paragraph by paragraph until there is a viable connection between the question, reading material, and your own interpretation. Somewhere within the pages of text and the wording of the inquiry is one, if not more, related themes upon which to form the basis of a thesis along with corresponding topics and subtopics. Once this is under way, you can begin to write.

Another part of the process is to sketch an outline of your position within the question: the claims you will make to convince the audience that your view is relevant, and how you intend to incorporate the counterargument into your conclusion. The outline will serve to organize the information you will use in the body paragraphs. A thorough outline will facilitate the writing of the assignment because it is an efficient instrument for maintaining relevant information and for managing the flow of reasoning and analysis within the writing.

This is necessary for generating ideas and connections between the question and the reading in an orderly but concise manner. The outline serves as a mechanism for preserving the draft in all phases of composition and revision. The planning supported by an outline will save time, boost your grade, and when done carefully will prove valuable in other disciplines. It is the instrument that propels the writing forward by keeping thoughts clear and organized. In essence, the outline exists as a framework that lends itself to translating the writer's perspective and comprehension. It is an apparatus no different than a wireframe used as a basis for the design of a consumer product, per se. In complementary disciplines it goes by another moniker; that is, stenciling. Thereto, as in the writing profession, it is practical for tracing the pattern behind the finished product without being burdened by the intricacies of the full development or production cycle.

The next part of the procedure requires creating a rough draft of how the writing will be presented. Oddly enough, this means writing without regard to many of the standard grammatical rules nor the actual requirement of the question by gathering thoughts and arranging them in a less stringent format. When the student needs to make progress, this method of free-writing helps to focus on the main idea as well as a preliminary order of subtopics that must be addressed, without being burdened by the intricacies of grammar or conventions, at least initially. Of course, the drafting process will involve many cycles of success or failure, but the end result is always clear and consistent writing in a more forgiving manner. Be aware that leaving out the drafting portion will be reflected in the final grade.

After several iterations, the outline will stabilize to the point where external sources will be required in order to develop and expand the writing beyond the limitations of the course or the student. The first place to look for information is in the course itself and the discussion that emanates from class. It is the main place where crucial judgments can be made regarding what to include and what to omit in the final draft. During this phase, make good use of your campus or public library; it is replete with a variety of publications and librarians who can offer useful advice on how to navigate the seemingly endless supply of research articles, publications, and textbooks.

Once all primary and intermediary drafting portions have been completed, it is beneficial to read the draft again in order to check for errors that have been overlooked; if possible, by a person other than the student. What makes sense to the author may not be readily apparent or compelling to another person.

As a final step in the drafting process, it may be worthwhile to read the assigned text once again, followed by reading the written response to the text soon thereafter. Although tedious and time-consuming, it could serve a dual purpose. First, to realign the student's work with the textual source and, secondly, to force a proofreading phase which may provide further motivation to identify and eliminate any lingering syntactical, grammatical, or thematic inconsistencies. The greater the number of intermediary steps preceding the final draft, the stronger and more transparent the conveyance of argument.

In all, it's important to examine the question closely and establish connections between it and the required reading while you are reading (and re-reading) the text. Next, it's necessary to build an outline to organize your ideas and keep yourself focused on the assignment. This is an especially important skill that will carry over into other courses.

The researching of additional material is another essential aspect of your writing, in all college courses. Make use of the resources available to you; specifically, a database or a librarian, to make this a much less daunting experience. Always leave time for editing and redrafting, to make sure that the final result is polished and cogent.

The majority of students who enroll in a college English course are under pressure to comprehend a reading, interpret a related inquiry to that reading, and produce an individually written response in return for a grade. This alone may not seem sufficient cause for sudden and inexplicable hesitance, but when we consider that students often have math, science, history, and other course requirements to deal with simultaneously, taking the time to read critically and write a coherent essay seems justifiably difficult, if not impossible. Aside from finding time to complete assignments, the reading is often obscure in both content and author. Another challenge is becoming accustomed to a professor's unique teaching style. It is much more likely that time constraints, content difficulty, and issues with class structure or instruction style are the real obstacles to performing well in English courses than any sort of personal inadequacy.

There are many disruptions and distractions standing in the way of completing a college degree and the ensuing career. There are people that will impact decisions, books that will shape and reshape thinking, and events marking the fluctuating patterns of education. This is most apparent in the English courses taken and the writing assignments that must be completed through the school years. The textbook may not be the most entertaining or inspiring ever read or studied. The vast majority of the time, the professor is a knowledgeable source for the course material but that doesn't necessarily guarantee that your experience will be optimal. Of course, people inside and outside the classroom will place unreasonable burdens and overwhelming demands upon even the most resilient students.

So, visit the libraries and read additional books related to the writing topic. Consider making an appointment with the professor or counselor to seek their advice about ways to excel in the course and throughout college. Make it a point to study together with as many classmates as time and commitments will allow in order to have a place to present ideas or to test your thesis or to kindle an early literary voice. There is no better time than the present to retrace the successful path of a famous writer that you always admired as a child in order to help you overcome any personal struggles or obstacles with the writing course.

Once the initial difficulty has been addressed, there are still many more hurdles to confront. At this point, the writing can be completed by using any number of strategies. The following section covers several ways to make progress when all other methods have faltered. Over time, some will prove more useful than others and may not be required as the writer matures or as alternative means of writing present themselves.

Aside from all the previous recommendations, there are other minor details that are indispensable for most written assignments. The introduction paragraph is the best place to capture the attention and interest of the audience. It is usually the place where the main argument of the essay can be found as well as a map of the entire essay. The body paragraphs are used to describe all the relevant information in an organized and thorough manner in order to guide the reader along from the minor points to all the pertinent facts, through to any potential implications stemming from the analysis. The conclusion paragraph can typically perform three functions: review the important claims of the essay in a more confident tone, reiterate one of the many points made in the preceding paragraphs to greater effect, or launch a unique theme arising from the preceding discussion that the reader can explore to further their curiosity or knowledge.

The following sample essay applies the techniques listed above through practical writing guidelines found in most textbooks or courses.


"Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." This is a saying by American inventor Thomas Edison. It means that great accomplishments depend not so much on ingenuity as on hard work. Another significant inventor is Albert Einstein. His theories form the basis for many of the conveniences people take for granted in the modern world. In that regard, there are many recent inventors that can be explored that are equally as prolific as Edison and Einstein.

The first modern inventor is Bill Gates. His entry into software technology has transformed the way people work and play. Before Gates, people used a telephone to socialize and a typewriter to prepare business documents. Not only has Gates combined those tasks into one device, he has reshaped the way people perform leisurely and professional tasks.

Another entrepreneur is Mark Zuckerberg who single-handedly redefined the way people communicate locally or abroad. Apart from the common way people meet and interact, Zuckerberg has formulated a platform for exchanging ideas through text, graphics, audio, and video in order to enhance intellectual and cultural curiosity. Before Zuckerberg, people used newspaper, television, and letters to correspond. Now, people can more intuitively and ingenuously cultivate their social and business circles.

Above all, a person's creativity and the product that emerges is sufficient to enhance lives. Some inventors envision a solution that becomes a reality which often forms the basis for long term prosperity. One example is the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. Bell was born in Scotland and relocated to Ontario and Massachusetts before eventually settling in Nova Scotia. He entered high school and enrolled in college but left before setting his sights on a method to transmit telegraph signals as electrical impulses in what would become an early version of the telephone. In modern times, it is difficult to image a home or a business without a telephone. What is equally outstanding is the indispensable usage of the cell phone by adults and children for work and play without being attached to a wall by a wire. Elsewhere, the collection and relay of information from a remote location to a laboratory is another way that technological innovation is improving life. For instance, telemetry is the automatic measurement and wireless transmission of data from remote sources to a central location or focal site. The use of telemetry systems include measuring and transmitting data from sensors located in automobiles, smart meters, power utilities, robots and even wildlife, into the confines of an office for analysis. What is equally as important as the invention itself is the assortment of products that spring forth from one person's motivation to make life more interesting and manageable.

In hindsight, people have been finding innovative ways to make life full of modern conveniences. That has taken the form of electricity, medicine, and airplanes, to name a few indispensable items. With each new generation comes greater challenges. Yet, we can rest assured that there will always be that one person that has a vision to make the world better and more exciting through remarkable breakthroughs. One such benefit is air travel through the accomplishments in aeronautics and aerodynamics by Orville and Wilbur Wright. Their insight into flying aircraft has expanded the horizon of many people in leisure or business. Alexander Bell's insight, "Before anything else, preparation is the key to success" is a worthwhile motto to follow en route to success. The question stands: will you be the next Leonardo Da Vinci and, if so, what is your unique brand of ingenuity?

Second Writing Perspective

As shown with the sample essay above, the better portion of writing effort begins with usage of punctuation. An essay can start with a quote from a famous person that illustrates the sentences to follow. That first sentence will start and end with quotation marks and a period to signal the end of the quote and the beginning of the next sentence. The remainder of the essay can make discretionary use of exclamation points and moderate placement of question marks. Any grouping of facts can be managed with commas, colons, and semicolons. The sentences, at the very least, will include a noun and verb preceded by an article such as A or An or The, followed by phrases considered relevant to the immediate subject matter.

The phrasing of a sentence usually depends on its position within the paragraph. A sentence located at the beginning of a paragraph conveys the perspective of that paragraph. The sentence that follows the topic statement clarifies points under consideration by way of examples or details or, as previously mentioned, quotation that support the topic. The last sentence in the paragraph summarizes the points made in the paragraph, reveals how a different perspective appearing in the next paragraph relates, or reiterates the connection to the main idea of the essay. The flow of expression among and within paragraphs is maintained by means of transitional phrases that function as sign posts or bridges, among them: initially, consequently, furthermore, or altogether.

The main idea of the essay initially appears in the introduction paragraph. In writing about an idea with many aspects, each one is assigned to separate body paragraphs that handle each point independently in order to maintain clarity of expression through a gradual presentation of themes. The first body paragraph sets the pace into motion by defining the topic. The second body paragraph provides examples of the definition not to repeat but rather to further inform the reader relative to the main point being made through the essay. The third, and subsequent, body paragraphs take the reader to the crux of the matter by incorporating wider issues that affect the point under consideration. This is where the writer draws in the audience through theory and controversy or any substantial level of debate.

The conclusion paragraph is the last opportunity for the writer to convince the audience that the point of view presented is justifiably sound. In order to accomplish this, the conclusion will reiterate the main idea posed at the start of the essay by using different words for lasting effect. A conclusion that takes into account a counterargument is more likely to capture a greater level of interest than one that avoids it; else, outright give the impression of a balanced and thorough examination of the central theme and any periphery implications or outright complications.

Once the writing is committed to paper, the continual refinement of an essay involves: drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading. As noted previously, the first draft incorporates the main argument, the supporting themes, along with the beginning, middle, and end of the essay. An argument that is not clear or substantial in subsequent drafts may need to be reintroduced or rephrased. A major revamping of a problematic essay keeps the creativity flowing while controlling any lingering doubt from the reader. Likewise, the sequence of body paragraphs may need reordering or there may be insufficient or extraneous paragraphs that have to be amended or removed. Any changes to the preceding paragraphs will ultimately affect the conclusion paragraph in terms of proper closure and consistency to the main topic.

Unlike the revision portion where essay sections are moved or eliminated, the editing portion serves to verify language cohesion at the sentence and paragraph level once the writing has stabilized. It ensures that the first word in the introduction paragraph moves imperceptibly and cogently into the very last word of the conclusion paragraph using clear communication to convey reasoning and analysis. The editing of content is mandatory after an essay has been revised in order to reach the final draft. As a finishing touch, proofreading occurs when you identify and eliminate errors in sentence and paragraph structure such as grammar, verb tense, spelling, punctuation, and transition. It is the last phase of the writing process before formal presentation to the intended recipient such as an audience. More importantly, a well-conceived essay will embody an authorial voice that ebbs and flows between the words which then reverberates effortlessly along the mind of the reader. When that happens, the essay can stand on its own and will often circumvent the need for further scrutiny by one and all.

This is one approach for compiling a standard essay. As such, it constitutes the basic elements of poetry, composition or research and, for the steadfast–publishing. Once a student understands this writing process, they can begin to explore the actual note-taking procedure that is required to gather the pertinent information that will be compiled. That information forms the basis of the sample essay that is presented above and another essay presented below.

A student that is presented with an assignment often takes the less complicated path to completion. This is not unusual when the overwhelming requirement is to memorize a set of literary vocabulary, a series of critical events, or the significance of a historical figure at a given point in time. This is primarily accomplished through study groups, scribbling on paper, or some form of visual or auditory recall of class or book related information. At a minimum, a student who takes this measure will pass the course and eventually graduate. But, what have we really learned? The next section emphasizes the strategy of note-taking in an academic setting. This is how a student begins to exhibit proficiency in the written form.

The first place to start when acquiring knowledge for a given course is by writing the information in sentence form. At the end of class and hopefully by the completion of a course, a student's notebook will be filled with sentences, phrases, or words that retrace the lesson through its entirely. These sentences hold the essence of a much greater concept that is being relayed by the teacher, one that can be captured within an outline. Granted, most elements of an outline will not be found in the lesson. But, it is a practical place to begin sorting the information in a manner that complements the student's learning pace or level of interest. Most of the sentences gathered from the classroom can be readily transferred to a corresponding location on the outline. Any part of the outline that is lacking in substance can be researched further by checking an encyclopedia, a dictionary or any other resources befitting the course theme.

For an advanced curriculum, the outline may need to be supplemented with another method of study known as charting. This method can begin with paper but has the potential to expand into poster size dimensions. For instance, a course assignment that requires a cross section of historical inventors can start with a blank paper that is folded into three columns. One column contains young inventors such as Louis Braille, another column that contains inventors that remain unrivaled by the number of inventions they embarked upon, and finally a third column that highlights the unique achievements of female inventors. For a simple report, a chart of such inventors committed to paper will suffice. However, for a more rigorous goal of—retrace the timeline for a major inventor including the pivotal moments leading to the invention and the many ways in which that invention has impacted people and places over a period of time along with any controversial aspects—the poster approach will determine who earns a better grade than one who chooses the quicker option. The benefit of charting in the note-taking process cannot be overemphasized in any field where a student is contemplating mastery.

Another way to manage the influx of knowledge related to a topic is by mind mapping. Through mind mapping of the critical process of an event, the student can follow the path of any significant correlation. When a concept is viewed as geometrical objects such as a circle or a rectangle, the mapping can be regarded as the angles and the line between those angles. A vital point of information is represented by a corner in the rectangle, while the flow of that information is represented by a line connecting one angle to another angle that is located diagonally to the first. This shape can be simplified into a triangle or extended into an octagon based on the needs of the task. In the case of the circle, the circumference would represent an alignment of magnitude while the endpoints of the diameter signify one of many possible paths from one point of the circle to another. In this way, the circle serves to organize interrelated groups of information, i.e. longitude and latitudes, northern or southern hemispheres, or polar caps such as those found on a globe. The best example of mind mapping is national or international airline routes. The destinations are connected by intermediate stops that are not always on a straight line and can be scattered due to terrain or atmosphere. In other fields such as astrology, a stellar constellation is often approximated through an arrangement of geometric shapes so that it stands out from the surrounding cluster of stars.

Most students enter their school years with a mission to become as proficient as possible through the classes they choose or that are mandatory. The note-taking techniques suggested thus far are the more flexible of the options explored. A truly committed student will undergo a deeper level of learning with the Cornell Method of note-taking. This particular variety of knowledge retention is a combination of the earlier skills. That is: it collects vital content, from course or textbook, through sentences that are placed on the right side of the paper. The left side of the paper is devoted to extraction of key points culled from the right side. Then, the bottom of the paper is reserved for a summary of the upper halves of the paper; namely, full ideas and succinct themes. The bottom section of the Cornell Method provides reinforcement of the lesson based on several resources open and available to the student.

Through the use of these tools of understanding, common writing methods will be discussed for further refinement of drafts. In particular, improving the narrative effect of the essay by organizing, proofreading, and disseminating course material to the general public.

So, by this point, the writer has acquired the prime materials to set forth the quintessential literary masterpiece, garnered the advice of the proofreader alluded to above, and begins to contemplate the light of at the end of the tunnel. Except, what often besets is the notion that a matter rising with the best of intention has quickly transformed into a substantial chore. In order to turn the heap into manageable amounts of accomplishment, this section describes the elements of inertia behind elaboration of superlative verse, through a basic question followed by more classic examples.

Select from the list of options below, the concept that defines a crucial requirement for pristine craftsmanship of essay fluency.

a theme
a transitional phrase
a context

In all fairness, a question directed at three different people will inevitably yield three different outcomes. As such, all three options (or any permutation thereof) are equally viable answers to the question as presented. The question points to a larger issue that looms over each writer. A writer that is at ease with a thematic approach will, undoubtedly, pick the first option as the correct choice. A writer with a penchant for transition will manifest his argument with words befitting, marking the second option without hesitation. A writer who is versed in history, science, or art will remain true to his nature and begin to weave reams over reams of verbosity at people, places, and periods; confidently casting his vote for the last option.

The theme is a standard by which the author delineates his argument, honing the statements toward the point under consideration. It is usually revealed early in the draft, occasionally prods at the reader throughout the body of the text and, by the point of closure, is well-defined and encourages the reader to seek out idle viewpoints with agility. Assuming the writer has exceeded the objective, the theme then persists and permeates.

The transitional phrase is the stream that induces thought by keeping prior remarks within sight and hinting at their relevance into forthright directions. All elementary squabbles aside, the writer definitively has his lot to fill. What would be the grounds for acclamation or provocativeness of novel were it not for the context–one might ponder–The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck without a Great Depression; A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens without a revolution; War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy without an aristocracy; remove the ambiance, and you thwart the longing to conceive the narrative, no matter how formidable your inventory of utterance. William Shakespeare in, As You Like It, understood this all too well.

[Jaques to Duke Senior]

All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,

Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.

From a pragmatic point of view, this clearly exemplifies basic writing elements that nudge at the writer, novice or expert, at every stage of composition. When deciding what to write, consider the following: the historical, the philosophical, the scientific, the artistic, all equally viable pursuits worth quoting. In their absence or omission, the feeble assemblage of evidence to support the writing proceeds only as a labor of love, so to speak. In figuring the progression of one idea over the next, the writer learns to capture the audience through his unique mode of expression, seamlessly etching insights or sowing seeds into the mind and soul of the reader. It is inevitable for subtle nuances to be subsumed along the way to the final analysis. Nonetheless, the literary enthusiast knows that the best writing speaks volumes; beneath a vocal stream and beyond the limit of thought.

In consideration of all the standard methods for writing an essay, master or apprentice notwithstanding; the incumbent writer will inevitably ponder incessantly about the general procedure for the assembly of words into a cohesive composition. In that regard, this section aims to describe in detail, the process behind each layer of drafting a typical essay assignment given many of the points in the prior sections.

The writing topic usually presupposes the ideas that will support the essay. An essay assignment that focuses on a plausible relationship between major American industrialists, for instance, could start with the three individuals listed below. Each industrialist appears in chronological order by significance of invention.

John D. Rockefeller
Henry Ford
Bill Gates

The previous section suggests an initial order of precedence for the thoughts presented in the essay. This is commonly expressed using transitional phrases or key terms similar to those provided in the next section.

By starting the first and largest oil company in history, John Rockefeller …
Without Henry Ford applying the possibilities provided by petroleum-based products …
… innovative technology leaders such as Bill Gates are continually contributing …

After the main ideas have been established and the flow of thought planned, each individual paragraph can be formulated through leading and trailing statements. Those statements can be unique to that particular theme, but can also allude to prevailing themes.

Before the discovery of petroleum in the United States, life for the common person was quite different and tedious. By starting the first and largest oil company in history, JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER paved the way for illumination and heating of homes where meals could be prepared with oil stoves rather than depending on other sources, an impulse that promoted self-sufficiency. Aside from making living quarters more hospitable, the Standard Oil Company greatly enhanced the creation of engine part lubrication and combustible fuel to power motion which led to transportation methods beyond horse and carriage.

Without HENRY FORD applying the possibilities provided by petroleum based products
, people would not have the option today to travel by automobile, train, airplane, or boat. Indeed, the invention of the engine that is lubricated by oil as well as powered by gasoline, has undoubtedly changed the way people travel, entertain, and earn a living. This has been the contribution of Henry Ford and his Model T vehicle along with the assembly line method of mass production.

It is not out of the ordinary to wonder at what point innovation starts to subside. In terms of the automobile industry, the answer is that it will likely keep surprising the consumer. This is evident in the computer industry with the advent of the computer laptop model. Most modern automobiles are equipped with computer chip technology to support vehicle operation such as Anti-Lock Braking or Autonomous Emergency Braking feature plus storage of data to aid in diagnosing mechanical failure. In certain segments of the market, the device being used to perform the repair often uses software that is Windows compatible. This is a prime example of how innovative technology leaders like BILL GATES are continually contributing to consumer convenience in daily life within their industry but also in tandem with complementary industries.

The paragraph samples presented in the section above require just an introduction paragraph and a conclusion paragraph to be considered complete. Since the topic is historical in nature, one way to introduce the essay is by defining the points of reference represented by the initial criteria of three pivotal industrialists. Thus, Rockefeller began his work about 1870, Ford started production around 1903, and Gates entered the computer market on 1975. Likewise, a pertinent discussion for the conclusion could be the implication of future innovations, such as solar energy or alternative fuel. The entire essay, all components combined, is re-conceptualized as follows.

An idea can be generated in a blink of an eye. An industry, on the contrary, can take nearly a century, if not longer, to turn into reality. In the transportation industry, that invention formed near 1870, gained momentum in 1903, and finally reached another milestone on 1975.

Before the discovery of petroleum in the United States, life for the common person was quite different and tedious. By starting the first and largest oil company in history, John D. Rockefeller paved the way for illumination and heating of homes where meals could be prepared with oil stoves rather than depending on other sources, an impulse that promoted self-sufficiency. Aside from making living quarters more hospitable, the Standard Oil Company greatly enhanced the creation of engine part lubrication and combustible fuel to power motion which led to transportation methods beyond horse and carriage.

Without Henry Ford applying the possibilities provided by petroleum lubrication and combustible fuel, people would not have the option today to travel by automobile, train, airplane, or boat. Indeed, the invention of the engine that is lubricated by oil as well as powered by gasoline, has undoubtedly changed the way people travel, entertain, and earn a living. This has been the contribution of Henry Ford and his Model T vehicle along with the assembly line method of mass production.

It is not out of the ordinary to wonder at what point innovation starts to subside. In terms of the automobile industry, the answer is that it will likely keep surprising consumers. This is evident in the computer industry with the advent of the computer laptop model. Most modern automobiles are equipped with computer chip technology to support vehicle operation such as Anti-Lock Braking or Autonomous Emergency Braking feature plus storage of data to aid in diagnosing mechanical failure. In certain segments of the market, the device being used to perform the repair often uses software that is Windows compatible. This is a prime example of how innovative technology leaders like Bill Gates are continually contributing to consumer convenience in daily life within their industry but also in tandem with complementary industries.

In consideration of prior notions, the automobile industry has made substantial progress through the vision and determination of great people. That is not to say that the final chapter has been written to that story. There are major new developments in science and technology that could re-invigorate the automobile thereby transforming our familiarity with the concept of transportation.

Once more, the novice and seasoned writer have no doubt been formally exposed to or have adequately applied the standard outline along the path from creativity phase to drafting phase to revision phase, adroitly toward the final refinement stage of the writing process. At the very least, the outline provides a starting point, a midsection (or two or three or more), and closure. The outline contains several layers of discarded or potential clusters of notation for consideration. As the proverbial square one that the outline ought to represent, it is the home base, the dirigible for the stormy voyage that awaits every author. Without it, all editing complications will inevitably exacerbate the deadline, causing even minor setbacks to appear insurmountable; in the strictest sense, incomprehensible. Most would concur without hesitation, any counterpart to literature recognizes it as none other than the checklist; in pilot nomenclature, in business protocol, as well as countless other professions.

Any point in the drafting process can benefit from variations, whether indirect or formal, of outlining. Most professional writers can perform all the necessary portions of drafting, admittedly, within the confines of their mind. Nonetheless, it goes without saying that even the writer that adheres to his own talents, can often be swayed by the need to make annotations, on paper, with pen, or by keyboard. Their willingness and devotion to do so is only overshadowed by those who bypass that procedure with the modern writing tablet, the word processor; only to be outdone by the writer who carves his craft with a myriad of Post-It paper. The question remains, once having committed to usage of the outline, of where to find the words, the meaning, the correlations, and the categories of expression that govern language as pretense to conventional communication.

Begin by securing a reputable version of any standard dictionary and an exhaustive brand of thesaurus. As a reference, each text alone serves to enrich the context thereby making light of seemingly obscure concepts, in the process; endearing the writer and the reader, alike. Both texts work in unison to blossom the literary impulse; in concert with an outline, the artistic end product truly and vibrantly blooms. By employing them, as a starting point, as a propellant of thought, you stand to lose nothing; if not, to gain everything.

With such reference books tucked away and thoughts hastily inscribed on paper or forged on screen, any writer would no doubt feel justifiably liberated. Except that, manuscripts are likely to undergo a series of disappointing rejections and stand to be debunked for one reason or the other. The writing phase is the primary portion of a highly intricate endeavor. It precedes the proofreading stage which verifies the effort started in the earlier phases of composition and, as shown in the sample above, the creativity phase that engenders it all.

Most writing effort is devoted succinctly to the penning and subsequent submittal of the assignment. Period. Ask one student to revamp a draft for clarity or organization and you may notice apprehension or disdain. Ask another student the same activity and you may be handed a masterpiece in the making.

In the latter, the draft is ripe for encouragement, effusing lines of reasoning that stand ready to be commanded into territory unknown. In the former, the draft has reached a plateau whose only release has been inexplicably eclipsed. In this instance, any provision supplied by the instructor is perhaps the only outlet for the student. Assuming the impasse is the result of misguided inquiry, the best recourse could be to formulate new questions that spawn from the reading, the problem, or any relevant digression of topic.

In the second instance, the writer has committed to a vision, harnessed the workmanship, and now openly gives the content its due diligence by exposing it to the scrutiny of the audience. The audience thereby points out lapse of judgment, expressive flaw, narrow reasoning, so on, so forth. Ideally, the writer competently redresses the intention and consequently realigns the substance beneath the narrative. This cycle of proving the thesis is limited only by the will and wont of the individual.

It behooves each type of writer, therefore, to perform perfunctory levels of proofing in order to make progress or to see the matter through to the end. Take the draft assignment and read many times over for fluency, error, substance, voice: at slower pace, by whisper, or in bellow. When the draft is read by another person, it provides an insight into discrepancies not immediately apparent to the author, in all facets of grammar. A draft that has stifled from lack of textual momentum can more than likely benefit from complementary sources that reverberate by providing a more thorough examination of the topic, in a depth of field that cannot be ascertained solely from the classroom textbook. To that end, reward being proportional to the amount of force exerted, duly applies, as it does among other disciplines that abound.


In any given academic or professional situation, there are less obtrusive and more traditional approaches to reaching proficiency in communication. A book that absolutely needs to be internalized can be better absorbed by inserting Post-It notes, where and when necessary. An oral examination that hinges on flawless execution of speech can be navigated through simple shuffling of index cards to remind the speaker of matters as they unfold. In general, the studying completed in course or at a library is the most important requirement for becoming knowledgeable in a given field. When implemented thoroughly and properly, note-taking leads to the best level of writing at any point in the matter. Whatever the level of urgency or the obligation, the planning effort invested is proportional to the grade or score achieved.

In hindsight, it takes an entire array of people, places, and provisions to start and end a writing assignment and to verify that the writing is worthy of a high score or of any attention at all. As demonstrated throughout, an excellent essay goes through a lengthy process of prewriting, writing, and rewriting. Adhering to this cycle results in flawless writing, which in turn, is often indicative of clear thinking achieved through extensive, rigorous, and laborious effort. The strongest writers know how to communicate a topic and how to convey related information to the intended audience during a speech, for instance. Through effective use of topic insight, they make things easy to understand; in layman terms, so to speak. These are the distinctive qualities of a competent writer. The person who remains focused on this approach acquires the ability to implement their writing technique independently, precisely, or eventually at will.

There are various other ways to compose an essay. This is merely one of those ways. Your experience may vary by planning a different path.

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This article has not been reviewed by Odyssey HQ and solely reflects the ideas and opinions of the creator.

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