The Racist History Of Policing In America

The Racist History Of Policing In America

Understanding the origin of the police.
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Presently, in the United States of America, the police force serves as a necessary function to promote order and protect citizens. The police department is an institution that is integrated in the very fabric of American society. Unfortunately, not everyone in American society views the police as the beneficial establishment they are supposed to be. It's no secret that the police force has never had the best relationship with communities of color. In recent years, the American public has been reminded of the brutality that has been forced against people of color since the inception of this country. The question to ask should be, "Why is there such a difference in experience with police between White Americans and Black Americans?" In my opinion, the answer to that question is simple.

Black Americans have an overall different experience than White Americans because of another institution called racism. The truth is that the United States was founded on racism. Many times to understand how anything functions you have to go back to the beginning. According to The Rebel Press, "As an instrument of oppression and control, modern police departments are deeply rooted in some of the most racist and repressive colonial institutions in the United States". Policing dates back to colonial times in the United States. "As Southern colonies developed an agricultural economic system, slave trade became indispensable to keep the economy running." "African slaves soon outnumbered whites in some colonies and fear of insurrections and riots led to the establishment of organized groups of vigilantes to keep them under control".

According to Therebelpress.com , "All white men aged six to sixty, were required to enlist and conduct armed patrols every night which consisted of: searching slave residences, breaking up slave gatherings, and protecting communities by patrolling the road". So, as early as colonial times, an organized policing force was created to continue the oppression of the enslaved Africans. The policing force was just an extension of the brutality the enslaved Africans already faced in early America. So the institution of policing in colonial America revolved around racism. Think of America as a tree. Racism is integrated into the roots of this tree and trickles up into the trunk of the tree and the branches. The police force is a branch on this tree. It is simply an extension of the racist institution America is. Rebel Press states, "Rather than punishing, the primary purpose of this racially focused law enforcement was to prevent mischief before it happened". "Racial profiling became the fundamental principle of policing and the definition of law enforcement came to be white- and whitewashed- patrolmen watching, detaining, arresting, and beating up people of color".

So the function of the earliest policing forces in America was to control people of color. So for those people who argue communities of color are often filled with more crime than white communities, and therefore attract more cops, it's not that simple. The function of these first policing forces in America was to keep the enslaved African subservient and comply to the will of the state. Racism was the law of the land. Eventually, these slave patrols would evolve into what would become the modern day police departments. Rebel Press informs, "Establishing the exact date to mark the beginning of modern policing in the United States since the evolution of older systems like Night Watches, and slave patrol into "new police" were slow". "However, we can take the mid 1800s as the years in which the present system of law enforcement dependent on a permanent agency with full-time paid officers were first conceived."

Rebel Press says, "Among the first cities to create such agencies were Boston in 1838, New York in 1845, Chicago in 1851 and St Louis in 1855; and again the motive behind the creation of these "peacekeeping" forces was the need to control the "unruly" classes as the emerging industrial economy and new Victorian standards of "morals" demanded it". In short, a policing force was needed to control the economic inequality, as well as racial inequality faced in the United States". "Starting in the early 1830s, a chain of riots triggered by race, religious, and labor disputes, swept across various cities in the northern region of the country and authorities responded by assigning their Night Watch patrols, the riot control function, but they soon learned that a volunteer watch system was ineffective". "Day Watches also proved to be useless. "Full- time police officers were needed.

Organized policing forces were created to suppress riots from people of color, but also the working class population. Once the United States entered an era of industrialization, the economic gap deepened and authorities were concerned they wouldn't be able to control the dissatisfaction already brewing within the states. Rebel Press states, "The concept of a professional police force was copied from London's Metropolitan Police Department, which had been established in 1829". "These "peace" agents were called Peelers or Bobbies, after Sir Robert Peel, founder of the institution". The American version of these agents were known as coppers, because they wore copper stars as badges on their uniforms. "They were available 24/7, carried guns and were "trained to think of themselves as better than the working class they were recruited from".

Furthermore, this isn't an anti-cop article. To understand any institution, you have to go back to its roots. The modern-day police departments we see started with slave patrols in colonial America and evolved into the federally authorized organizations we see today. Many people ask, "Are the police racist?" and fail to understand that the function of the institution from the very beginning has been to harass people of color. So the next time a person of color is brutalized by the police department in America, do not say it is a coincidence. I'm not saying every cop out there has the worst intentions for a person of color. I am saying begin to doubt a institution that has a history of brutalizing certain people. Communities of color aren't crazy or misled for not trusting the police a lot of times. They understand that the police, from the very beginning, has not had their best interest at heart. Many times a person of color is killed and people say, "Well , what did they do wrong?" instead of asking was it absolutely necessary to take a person's life. Obviously, police brutality in communities of color isn't a new problem. In fact, it's a problem older than the United States of America. Reform is certainly necessary in police departments.



Cover Image Credit: Google

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Ending Poverty Starts At Reducing Educational Inequality

Our nation's schools are furthering the cycle of poverty.
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If you’ve spoken to any inner city public school teacher ever, you’ll know our education system is failing. School buildings are literally falling apart, teachers are underpaid and students don’t have the resources and support they need to thrive.

It’s not their fault. The system just isn’t designed for poor school districts to have the same advantages as their richer counterparts. The idea of funding schools through property tax seems like a good idea until you realize that means that affluent suburban districts often receive up to 15.6% more than their less affluent counterparts to spend on their students each year.

What that means is that as bad as things are now, they will just continue to get worse as long as we continue pumping money into rich districts and forcing poor districts to sometimes live without the bare necessities.

And we wonder why children born into poverty have such a hard time thriving.

There have been dozens of studies conducted just within the past decade on the importance of education in helping people escape from the socioeconomic conditions in which they are born. According to the Global Partnership for Education, appropriate education improves income, promotes gender equality and reduces rates of HIV and AIDS.

But when children are continually receiving sub-par education in dismal conditions, the motivation to continue receiving that education becomes almost nonexistent. Nobody wants to learn in a school where the district can’t even afford toilet paper. That is one of the reasons why drop out rates are so much higher in lower income districts than higher income ones.

It’s easy to see the problem, but the solution is less tangible. To reduce educational inequality, we need to undo the system that has created such a problem: funding schools through property tax.

When schools are funded through property tax, areas with much more valuable property are inherently going to pump more money into the school district than areas where the property isn’t valued as highly. It’s incredibly problematic, but it’s an easy system. It has lasted for more than a century, so states are extremely reluctant to eliminate something that’s worked for so long.

States are so reluctant that even though the Ohio Supreme Court ruled the funding system unconstitutional more than 20 years ago, a solution has yet to be spelled out. It is easier to ignore the problem and hope it goes away than potentially anger the parents of children in rich districts who feel their children “deserve” the educational advantages they receive.

I did a presentation on this topic in front of my AP Language and Composition class my junior year of high school; I received a B and a scathing note on top of my graded rubric from my teacher: "Maybe you should have chosen a more interesting topic." I was disappointed, but I wasn't surprised.

Because that’s the root of the problem. At the end of the day, we aren't really interested in eliminating poverty. If we eliminate poverty, then we eliminate the elitism that our upper-middle and upper classes cling to so dearly. At the core of American patriotism and pride, there is a nasty streak of Calvinism.

Deep down, so many of us still continue to believe that poor people deserve to be poor and that the rest of us are rich and privileged because we did something to deserve it. Maybe we’re smarter or nicer or better Christians than “those people,” but at the very least we know that they’re lazy.

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If we want to eliminate poverty, we have to reduce educational inequality, but before we do that, we need to acknowledge the reason why we haven’t done so already.

Cover Image Credit: Pixabay

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