A History Lesson On The "Father of Radio," Lee De Forest.

A History Lesson On The 'Father of Radio,' Lee De Forest

A trip back in time to the origin behind the creator of live radio broadcasting.

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The "father of radio," the "grandfather of television," the man who created live radio broadcasting, Lee de Forest was a man who forever changed the history of radio and television. Lee de Forest was born on August 26th of 1873, in Council Bluffs, Iowa. Furthermore, he was the son of a Congregational minister who had a presidential position at Talladega College, a bankrupt school with mostly African Americans. Lucky for Lee, he fit in perfectly as part of the community. Lee's father wanted a career for him in the clergy, but Lee preferred science which led to his enrollment in the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University in 1893. Within six years, Lee was working many jobs, making the best out of his scholarship and the best out of his allowance from his parents to later achieve his Ph.D. in 1899 in physics.

Around 1899, electricity started to be an interest to Lee, specifically electromagnetic- wave propagation."De Forest's doctoral dissertation on the "Reflection of Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires" was possibly the first doctoral thesis in the United States on the subject that was later to become known as radio" (E. Fielding, Raymond). Lee began to work at the Western Electric Company in Chicago, starting off in the telephone section and leading him to the experimental laboratory. Furthermore, working after hours granted Lee with his first invention, an electrolytic detector of Hertzian waves, which became moderately successful. In 1902, De Forest founded the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company to allow a new medium of communication to be born and spread to the press, military, businesses, and the people. Wireless telegraphy was the route of creation De Forest took, leading him to create the "Audion" because of his dedication to this new form of communication.

The Audion was a more evolved detector; it had a stronger reception towards wireless signals than Carborundum and electrolytic detectors. Furthermore, in 1907 Lee began to take advantage of his invention by broadcasting music and speech to the people living in the New York City area. Although with his newly made invention, also came the downfalls in Lee's life. He was defrauded twice by business partners, involved in many patent lawsuits, had four unsuccessful marriages, and was indicted for mail fraud, which was later acquitted. Furthermore, Lee fell victim to many failed inventions and had a hard time trying to convey his new medium.

On the contrary, in 1910 was Lee's first broadcast of any sort of performance. Specifically, it was a live performance of opera, sung by Enrico Caruso at the Metropolitan Opera. This broadcast allowed Lee to share his new medium with the general public and to get ideas on how his creation could evolve.

Eventually, by 1912, de Forest began to have many Audion tubes to amplify high-frequency radio signals to far areas. "He fed the output from the plate of one tube through a transformer to the grid of a second, the output of the second tube's plate to the grid of a third, and so forth, which thereby allowed for an enormous amplification of a signal that was originally very weak"(E. Fielding, Raymond). The more modifications the Audion had, the better its impact on radio, as the transmitting and amplification of radio signals towards farther distances grew stronger allowing telephonic distance communication to evolve.

Through the success of his invention, Lee began to create controversy around scientists and attorneys, eventually selling patents to communication firms for further development. Moreover, the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T;) installed audions to amplify voice signals all across the United States of America, changing the development of radio.

In 1921, de Forest began producing audio and recordings for movies. He created a recording system titled "Phonofilm," which led to him starting the "De Forest Phonofilm Corporation." Although the quality of the system was mediocre, the optical recording system was shown in many theaters from 1923 to 1927. His method was put off by many film producers as they rejected his sound-on-film device, because of the evolution of film and the use of talking pictures. Ironically, producers in the past did not want to use De Forests device, because they did not believe in it, but as years passed, movies began to use De Forests method of sound recording and many are still influenced by his methods today.

Overall, Lee De Forest died with over 300 patents and has signified his spot in the history of radio and television and is one of the principal inventors of today. He allowed the ease of amplifying radio signals, coast to coast services to be created all across the world, and is credited for bringing sound to motion pictures.

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When God Gives A Girl A Brother

He gives her a best friend.
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My brother is only 18 months younger than I am, but he's also at least a foot taller than me. Growing up with someone so close to my age has been one of the biggest blessings in my life. Yes, there was a time when I thought every single little thing he did was annoying and his feelings towards me were mutual. Yes, we still get into arguments and disagreements. But for the most part, we enjoy each others company. When God gives a girl a brother, He gives her...

1. A listener

I always have someone to talk to. No matter what, when, or where. Some of my favorite moments are spent chatting my brother's ears off while he absent-mindedly nods and continues to play x-box. Sometimes he just listens and doesn't say anything. Sometimes he gives me long replies. He always knows just how to react to what I am saying to him, which is why I tell him almost everything.

2. A protector

When I think about the man that my brother has become, it seriously brings tears to my eyes. He's so big!! How did this happen? I can remember when I was little and could boss him around and he would actually do whatever I said. Now I'm scared that if he hugs me too hard, I might break in half. My brother cares about me, and lets me know it. I'm so thankful to know that he is there for me no matter what and would do anything to keep me from harm.

3. A dance partner

Another favorite memory is dancing to Juju on that beat in the kitchen while mom is cooking dinner (or dancing with us). Or any other time any other song is on... in any other place... LOL. My brother and I are different in a lot of ways, but we both have no problem busting a move together.

4. A Sonic date

"Hey, wanna go get a sonic drink?" "Yeah, if you're buying!" This is a typical conversation for us, and he actually really does usually buy my food! (With mom's credit card sometimes, does that still count?)

5. An example

Being the older sister, I sometimes feel like I have let my brother down in a lot of ways in that he is probably an example to me more than I am to him. He is incredibly smart, talented, and hard working. Kids FLOCK to this guy, and he has the most creative mind ever. Seriously, I'm so nervous that my future kids are going to like their funny uncle more than me. He's way cooler than I am, and I want to be just like him when I grow up.

6. Comic relief

If you've never heard a "Lane Prevett story," pull up a chair. I will be glad to make you cry from laughing so hard. There's no way you can spend time with him and not laugh. And that, to me, is the best kind of person to be.

7. A best friend

My brother is a lot of things, but my favorite thing about him is that he is my best friend. Yes, we aggravate each other. Sometimes he plays his music too loud, and sometimes I take up all the internet so that he can't play video games. But I know that he would do anything for me, and he knows the same goes for him.

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14 New Songs That Need To Be Added To Your Summer Playlist ASAP

Because we all need some new music when the sun starts shining down and our worries suddenly go out the window, even for only a second.

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It's summertime once again, and that means pool parties, beach days, and road trips are back and taking over for the next few months.

Of course, no summer would be complete without the soundtrack that makes us remember it all when we hear the first few notes to a song twenty years from now and say, "this reminds me of that one summer..."

So, in order to aid in your search for the perfect summer soundtrack, here are fifteen of my favorite jams that have been on repeat lately, and will probably continue to be well into this season.

Read, listen, and enjoy; I know I will be.

1. "Find U Again" by Mark Ronson ft. Camila Cabello

Mark Ronson may be best known for his ever popular collab with Bruno Mars, better known as "Uptown Funk," but don't let that be the only song of his you ever hear. On this new, bouncy collab with pop sensation Camila Cabello, Ronson is able to display his beats and pair them up with Cabello's own lyrics (some of which she had written since she was much, much younger!)

The result of these two factors put together is a song which Cabello describes as "emo" because it shows her emotions in the way only Camila Cabello can do.

But, unlike what you may initially think of when the word emo comes to mind, this song isn't necessarily one to listen to when you wanna have a good cry.

Instead, I'd play this song when you wanna jam out while driving in the middle of the day, or even poolside with some friends.

The perfect summer hit.

2. "Mother's Daughter" by Miley Cyrus

Miley Cyrus took the world by storm in 2013 with her hit album, "Bangerz" which topped charts and spawned well-known and beloved hits such as "We Can't Stop" and "Adore You." While her next couple of bodies of work didn't seem to measure up to the success and popularity of what is known as "2013ley" among the fanbase, it seems the Miley we all know and love is now back.

Her newest EP, titled "She Is Coming" carries songs with such a Bangerz-esque feel to them it's almost hard to believe they weren't a part of the now six-year-old record.

The lead off of the EP, "Mother's Daughter," showcases Cyrus singing some raunchy lyrics over a catchy trap beat (if that's even what it is, I'm no expert) and, dare I say, has the potential to take over pop radio if pushed properly by her PR team.

Regardless, you should add this to your summer playlist because it's definitely a bop, as the kids say.

3. "You Need To Calm Down" by Taylor Swift

This song is everything I have ever wanted, and I'm saying that as a very loyal fan.

Taylor Swift returned after her smashing 2017 album, "reputation," as well as her 2018 tour, The reputation Stadium Tour, with a complete 180. Everything hits such as "Look What You Made Me Do," "End Game," and "...Ready For It?" weren't, this new era (dubbed the Lover era, after the name of her upcoming seventh studio album) is.

With the amazing vocals of Swift paired with the coy, shady lyrics addressing bullying, homophobia, and unnecessary criticism over a groovy synth-pop beat, it was a no brainer that this song would get stuck in all of our heads after a few listens.

Also, can we just take a moment to appreciate the lyric, "'cause shade never made anybody less gay" because it truly is a masterpiece on its own.

Whether you love Swift to death, or even if you don't consider yourself much of a "stan," there's no way you can deny the power this song has to make you feel good about yourself.

So just give in to it—I promise it's worth it.

4. "Facetime" by Tana Mongeau

As I detailed in a previous article, Tana Mongeau is a very polarizing youtuber, but nonetheless, she's one of my all-time favorites. And for this reason, I'm going to fight for this song's rights because I know if I don't, it will continue to go unnoticed and unloved.

"Facetime" is the fourth single Mongeau has released in her career (preceded by "Hefner," "W," and "F***-Up") and definitely has potential to be beloved by a niche community--much like other artists such as Billie Eilish, Nina Nesbitt, and Halsey before her recent radio success.

if you're looking for amazing vocals and powerful belts, this song isn't it. But if you're looking for something chill to listen to while you're relaxing at home or getting ready to go out, I'd say give this a go and see how it feels.

I personally love to listen to it during my morning skincare routine because it helps get me in a good mood for the day, but that's just me.

5. "Church" by Aly and AJ

If it seems too good to be true that this duo of sisters from our childhood Disney Channel days are still making music together over a decade later, you aren't the only one.

When I found out Aly and AJ were making a huge comeback, I was taken aback. And when I first listened to their single, "Take Me" I wasn't sure what to think because I felt so many emotions, and all of them were good.

"Church" is very much new-age and the synth pop one would expect from artists like Carly Rae Jepsen, and I think that's what makes it work so well. While we all have a soft spot for the classics such as "Rush" and "Potential Breakup Song," it's only natural that those girls grew up and changed their sound a bit to fit the women they became.

But don't let the idea of change scare you away into thinking the new songs aren't good, because trust me, they are.

Especially if you want the perfect song to play while driving to the beach for the perfect summer day.

6. "In My Bed" by Sabrina Carpenter

Among the "ex-acts" (that is, pop music stars that were once on kid's networks such as Nickelodeon and Disney Channel) Sabrina Carpenter is one of the more recent. Her rise to fame on the show, "Girl Meets World" earned her a loyal fanbase that stuck by her through her first two albums, "Eyes Open" and "EVOLution."

As her most recent EP, "Singular: Act I" spawned a tour and some radio play for the lead single, "Almost Love," Carpenter's popularity is growing ever so slightly and rightfully so.

Her vocals are incomparable to any other act on the market at the moment, and her charisma shines through in every song, music video, and interview she does.

This new single, which is leading up to her next EP, is personally one of my favorite songs she's ever released and it shows the growth in her, both as an artist and a human being.

She truly deserves more recognition and admiration, so give this song a good few listens and let yourself fall in love with it the same way I did.

7. "Don't Threaten Me With A Good Time" by Thomas Rhett ft. Little Big Town

To all of the country music lovers such as myself, this one is for you.

Thomas Rhett's popularity greatly increased after his 2017 album, "Life Changes" and it seems that he's not stopping anytime soon, thankfully.

On his newest record, "Center Point Road" which was just released at the end of May (and the start of most our summers) Rhett graced us fans with the perfect country collab we didn't even expect: A song with fellow country superstars, Little Big Town.

"Don't Threaten Me With A Good Time" has that classic Thomas Rhett feel—fun, easy going, and definitely made to be played at a barbecue or a cookout in the middle of the summer. So it's basically perfect.

If you're not a country music fan, I still say this song might be worth a listen or two. You never know, it might just grow on you.

8. "Butterflies" by Gabbie Hanna

Contrary to popular belief, not all youtubers who choose to delve into the music world are flops, and Gabbie Hanna is a good example of that.

While she may have had a rocky start entering the music world (let's all pretend the "Monster" meme doesn't exist) it's clear with her newest EP, "2WAYMIRROR" that she has found her sound, and her home.

The lead single, "Butterflies," is the perfect alt-pop song I didn't know I needed until I heard it, and now I cannot imagine my life without it.

Hanna's soft, low vocals pair so nicely with the melody and the lyrics are just the cherry on top, especially when it comes to the chorus.

This isn't the kind of song you would play at a summer party, but it is the kind of song you would (and should!) play when you're trying to wind down from a busy day, or week. Trust me.

9. "Nightmare" by Halsey

Halsey is, arguably, one of the most popular artists out in the market today, and whether you love that or hate it, you can't deny the fact that you're probably going to hear a song of hers at least once in your day (multiple times if you're a radio listener.)

Out of all of her songs, there are many different ones I would consider to be bops, and "Nightmare" is definitely one of them.

It takes a different route than others she's released, and it has a different feel than most (if not all) of the songs on this list of summer songs, but I think that's what makes it a good choice.

Halsey is typically known as an alt artist, despite her commercial fame, and this single showcases her roots and where she came from.

For a Halsey fan, it's an instant love. But even if you're not really into her, this is a must have for this summer.

10. "Don't Throw Out My Legos" by AJR

Despite some fame for their hit single, 'Weak" off their 2017 album, "The Click" and some recent attention for the lead single off of their 2019 album, "Neotheater," titled "100 Bad Days" thanks to it being added to Taylor Swift's playlist, AJR is mostly an unknown band that makes music for their loyal and niche fanbase.

As a fan that's been with these boys for a few years now, it's hard to decide between wanting them to get bigger because they deserve it, and wanting to keep them my own little secret. However, "Don't Throw Out My Legos" is way too good to keep to myself, so I've decided to share the wealth.

Nostalgia is hard and heavy in 2019, and this song touches on it in a unique way that I think a lot of us can relate to even if we didn't necessarily play with legos as a kid (I was more of a Bratz doll kid myself.)

Bottom line is, we've all felt doubtful and unsure of our futures at some point and wanted to have the reassurance of being able to crawl back into what we knew so well once upon a time, and for that reason, I believe this song is essential for this summer,.

How else will we deal with our love of nostalgia?

11. "Joy" by Bastille

If you only know Bastille as that one group who sang the popular hit, "Pompeii," you're not alone.

However, you are sadly completely missing out on some good music.

Bastille, to me, is one of those bands that cannot make a bad song. Everything they release is even better than the one before it and I often wonder how four men could be so impeccably talented, all while being grateful I was able to discover them when I did so I could have the music in my life for as long as I have.

"Joy" is the lead single off of their third album, "Doom Days" and it's exactly what the name suggests: Joy.

The melody, the lyrics, Dan Smith's vocals, all of it brings nothing but joy to my ears when it plays and makes me feel like everything is great even when it's not.

This, to me, is the perfect example of a song meant to be a summer smash, and if you don't add it to your playlist, I feel extremely sorry for you because you'll be missing some good jam sessions.

12. "If I Can't Have You" by Shawn Mendes

Shawn Mendes is a name that holds a lot of power in the year of 2019. And for good reason, if you ask me.

While a lot of his songs are slow and acoustic, there are quite a bit that requires some head bopping and screaming at the top of your lungs when you're home alone.

This is one of them.

Much like "Stitches" and "There's Nothing Holding Me Back," the melody in this single just seems to bring something out in me in ways I can't really express, but that I love oh, so very much.

If you've never been into Mendes because of his stigma as being for little girls, give this song a try and I promise you'll change your mind. And if you're already part of the Mendes Army, this is 100% the song that's been stuck in your head for days, I'm sure.

Either way, it's a must have for summer. Mendes knew what he was doing.

13. "you should see me in a crown" by Billie Eilish

While this song isn't technically new, I've had it on repeat for the last few weeks because it's just that good.

Admittedly, I wasn't much of a Billie Eilish fan when she first appeared on the scene. I thought she was weird, and I often expressed how she creeped me out a lot of the time.

But after giving her album a fair shot, I fell in love with a few of the songs and now I finally understand the hype I judged for so long.

This is a song that makes you feel like a badass, point blank. There's no way you'll listen to this and not "feel yourself" and think you're the absolute s***, and that's why I love it so much.

It's definitely an acquired taste if you've never been one for alt-pop, but I think it's a grower, so even if you don't like it at first, you might after a few tries.

And if it doesn't make its way onto your summer playlist, I will never understand you.

14. "Only Human" by the Jonas Brothers

Yes, the world's infamous boy band has returned and we are all living in a better world because of it.

The Jonas Brothers made a big splash in 2019 by announcing a comeback, two chart-topping singles, their first album in ten years, and nationwide and overseas tour for this summer, fall, and next spring.

It's been a wild time, and we're only in June!

Seeing as we've reached peak summertime, where all the kids are out of school and spending their days doing whatever kids do, it's time for a new single to take the charts and continue their takeover full force.

My contender for this is none other than the song titled, "Only Human" off of their fifth studio album (I still can't believe they have five albums now!) "Happiness Begins," which is covered in dance-inducing perfection.

I imagine a world where this song is played at every summer party, at the beach with friends, at the bars and clubs on the weekends, during road trips, and even just while at home doing nothing special but listening to the music that makes you happy.

This song is the perfect depiction of who the Jonas Brothers are in 2019, with Nick and Joe sharing the lead vocals back and forth, and Kevin's guitar playing gently shining in the background.

What more could one ask for?

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