A Bold New 'Solution' Is No Solution At All

A Bold New 'Solution' Is No Solution At All

The idea gaining momentum in political circles titled Universal Basic Income is riddled with flaws that it's proponents seem to willingly overlook

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The movement to overhaul the American system of welfare and give everyone a monthly check has gained significant momentum in a wide variety of political circles, with proponents coming from both sides of the aisle. They claim that in this increasingly automated world, more and more jobs will be lost to technology, people will remain chronically unemployed without the skills or abilities necessary to sustain their own life. They claim that our welfare system, as it exists today will be unable to sustain these people who live without work. They may be right about this, but the fundamental ideas behind this convoluted idea are just dangerous. The movement I'm talking about, of course, is the one to establish a Universal Basic Income, or UBI for short.

The idea seems reasonable, a study done by the Oxford University found that 47 percent of American jobs are at high risk of "computerization", as used in their study. It also shows that wage level and educational attainment show a negative correlation with the probability of a job becoming automated. These findings only bolster the argument made by proponents of UBI. As jobs become increasingly insecure, as low-income jobs are lost to newer technology, as less skilled workers lose jobs in these crucial industries rises, what are we to do? There are many different views on exactly how to implement policies like this, but no matter the variation, at their core, they all believe that a UBI is the right step for America as we blindly move into the future of technology. I, however, stand against this solution, as the problem that they demand to fix isn't even upon us yet, and it would prove infeasible, hurting those it claims to be helping.

The strongest point against UBI is simply that it is not means tested. When something is means-tested, it means that there is a certain condition that has to be met in order to qualify for benefits. Our welfare programs are all means tested, and that is a good thing. The problem with infusing this cash directly into the American economy is not that we are infusing cash, rather is who we are giving the cash too. It is well documented that when poor to middle-class people are given money, they produce more economic output than if that same dollar was given to someone far richer, as much as 3 times as much.

The issue then becomes how to develop a functional system to adequately provide cash to the lower quintiles of the system and not to those in the upper quintile. Citing the Oxford University study, it is clear that the jobs held by the upper quintile earners are at significantly less risk than those in the lower quintiles because their wages are far higher and based more on investment rather than the typical salary model. Plus, they have significant educational attainment and have skills in leadership, engineering, research, development, etc. that would still be necessary in the dystopian future where enough work is destroyed to provide a substantial need for this program in the first place.

Giving those who already make a hefty amount would be simply unfair as it would cost Americans more in the long run by increasing federal spending but also reducing the amount of economic investment. There would have to be some degree of means testing in this UBI program but the proponents have not put forth any idea that would solve this problem. Making it unconditional also reduces the incentive to work. Back in the 60's and 70's when the ideas of Milton Friedman were held with such a vigor, many states adopted a similar policy of a negative income tax, which is a form of supplemental income until you reach a certain amount. In four random assignment experiments in six different states between the years of 1968 and 1980 they found that for every additional 1,000 dollars in supplements, real earnings dropped by $660. The destruction of the work incentive would actually hurt those who are poor because then they are relying on a barely passable $12,000 income without any additional income, but the constant cash flows would trick the mind into thinking that work would not be necessary.

Even further, most proponents of UBI propose eliminating social programs like social security and Medicare. In doing this, you are essentially taking money from disabled, elderly members of society and giving it to able-bodied adults who are less likely to have dependents. Social security gives more to it's recipients than the flat 12,000 dollars set forth in most plans for implementing UBI. By diverting funds from social security, and thereby reducing the income of elders, you significantly reduce the elderly's well being. One study done indicated that without social security, the elderly poverty rate would be as much as 40 percent.

And while they would still be receiving income, it would not be chained to inflation, like social security is, it would not be as high, it would not grow as you age, and it would not provide as much money to the most disadvantaged in our society. It would instead be giving money to able-bodied, able-minded youth and working class who are entirely able to support themselves through work. Proponents would counter with that these programs, and their spending, have grown and are unsustainable at current rates. This is true, but the proper conclusion to draw from that would be to reform them. Social security can be easily reformed to save lots of money in the future by raising the payroll tax cap currently placed at $127,200 to a much higher amount to incorporate more income earners, or to raise the early retirement age to adjust for a large increase in American longevity. Simple fixes in these institutions could save the government lots of money, the correct answer is to simply reform this so they can continue to provide the crucial services that they offer to thousands of Americans every day.

Moreover, the core principle of redistributing money to able-bodied, able-minded citizens is simply un-American. A poll taken by the heritage foundation found that about 92 percent of Americans disagree with the idea that able-bodied citizens should be supported by the taxpayer. Individuals capable of work should work, and they should provide benefit to society by being productive. As stated above, the UBI would destroy the incentive to work, thereby reducing the incentive to produce which would, over time, hurt the greater society. By supporting those capable of providing benefit to society, you destroy the possible production capacity of said workers. In effect, you are defying the long-standing idea of the social contract, in which those who can provide, do; in which those that can provide, provide for those who can't. So to does this policy remove certain important distinctions that our government makes among certain demographic groups by establishing a universal entitlement, which has serious implications for the general scope of government.

But to top off all of this, it would simply cost too much. A conservative estimate put $12,000 for all citizens at a price-tag of almost 3 trillion, which is most of our federal budget as is. In order to pay for this, significant taxes would have to be levied in order to fund these programs. This doesn't even take into account that a cash infusion of this scale, and the subsequent spending that would follow would lead to inflation, as the demand of goods would be shocked upward every time there was a new infusion, as Americans would spend most of their new found income. This is purely theoretical, but the basis for thinking it is rooted in simple macroeconomic analysis, and should be considered.

To alleviate this, they could shackle it to inflation, but that could end up costing more as they would have to spend more per person every consecutive year. Raising taxes enough to continue to fund this and other dire social programs would be necessary, but this idea is somewhat incongruent with the very idea of giving a basic income to all, as it would be decreasing the amount of income that they would be able to spend. It is true that taxes could be increased on the rich, but it is infeasible to suggest that the entire tax burden would be placed on them as they have way more lobbying power and influence in our government.

Lastly, this program would not create any actual wealth or encourage wealth to be created. Wealth is created through production. A program that slowly destroys production slowly destroys the ability to create wealth. Henry Hazlitt once noted that the only cure for poverty is production. Programs designed to better target those disadvantaged, poor, or at-risk jobs with job training, or simply with better education would be an ideal first step in helping our society move forward into the age of technology, not some convoluted plan advertised by Silicon Valley nut-jobs. There have been noteworthy failures in the past in developing programs like this, but substantial reforms in the Department of Education and in the way we think about schooling would better target the problem at hand.

In conclusion, UBI is just bad, infeasible policy that does nothing but reallocate funds from the disadvantaged in society to those who are completely able to work. It would hurt those that it was conceived to help, it defies the deeply embedded principles held in our society, and it does nothing to actually target the issue at hand. If anything it makes the issue worse. I urge people to move away from this policy moving forward as it is not the right answer to the looming problem of automation (which it is noteworthy that claims of automation taking jobs in the past has never actually manifested) only a contrived way to make tech giants feel good about themselves.

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100 Instagram Captions You'll Want To Use Right Now

Quotes, lyrics, sayings, and other ideas for Instagram captions!
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When it comes to Instagram we are often thinking about what to use as a caption for our photos that we take that we really want to post on Instagram. Sometimes we post the photo without a caption and sometimes we just use an emoji because we're stumped on finding a good caption to use for the photo. So we go the short route and just put an emoji as a caption for our photo. Well whether it is a selfie, a friend pic, group pic, or just need a caption for the photo, here are 100 captions to use for a photo. Some are lyrics, some are quotes, and some are just a quick caption to use on your photo. Also here are some accounts that are worth following:

-@brandonwoelfel

-@tess_and_sarah

-@brandymelvilleusa

-@goldenretrievers_

-@cats_of_instagram

-@zodiac.signs

-@thegrilledpineapple

-@jazzjennings_

-@chipper_thegolddog

-@llauratheleo

-@heyshalice

-@sailorhaley

-@sandcloudteam

-@photosabss

-@sharkbaitblond

Here are Quotes To Use As A Caption/ Lyrics To Use As A Caption/ Quick Little Sayings To Use As A Caption: for your Instagram photo that you wish to post!

1. Life goes on, with or without you.

2. Don't Worry Be Happy! Bob Marley

3. Be Happy.

4. Be Confident.

5. Be Positive.

6. Don't be a liar, everyone hates a liar.

7. Chillin' with my peeps.

8. Go big or go home.

9. What's the deal?

10. The most important thing is to enjoy your life – to be happy – it's all that matters.

11. Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced.

12. Life is a gift.

13. You couldn't handle me even if I came with instructions.

14. Forgive, yes. Forget, never.

15.There's a hole in my heart where you used to be.

16. I don't need any part-time people in my life.

17. Get the gist.

18. Boy, it's the 21st Century, get with the program.

19. Hey, I just met you, this is crazy!

20. I woke up like this.

21. Keep smiling because life is a beautiful thing and there's so much to smile about.

22. Beauty is power, a smile is its sword.

23. Last day of class!

24. I donut care!

25. Got my donut and coffee today.

26. Happy as a clam

27. Beach days are the best!

28. A friend will always make you smile, especially when you don't want to…

29. Always classy, never trashy, and a little bit sassy.

30. If only we could turn back time...

31. With you, I forget all my problems. With you, time stands still.

32. Life's a climb, but the view is great.

33. "Ohana, means family, family means no one gets left behind or forgotten." — "Lilo & Stitch"

34. We come to love by not finding the perfect person, but by learning to see the imperfect person perfectly.

35. If I ever write a story about my life, don't be surprised if your name appears a billion times.

36. She's got that red lip, classic thing going on.

37. I don't know what's tighter, our jeans or our friendship!

38. Best friends make good times better and hard times easier!

39. Not sure what I did to deserve you as my best friend :)

40. I don't need your approval to be me.

41. So call me? Maybe?

42. "I am who.I am, I am what I am, I do what I do and I ain't never gonna do it any different. I don't care who likes it and who don't." — Buck Owens

43. Take me as I am, or watch me as I go.

44. "Kiss me under the light of a thousand stars." — Ed Sheeran

45. Cause you're a sky full of stars — Coldplay

46 . I keep dancing on my own — Calum Scott

47. Can't keep my hands to myself — Selena Gomez

48. I just want to look good for you — Selena Gomez

49. Kill em with kindness — Selena Gomez

50. I am not perfect. I make mistakes. But when I say sorry… I mean it!

51. Me? Weird? Please! I am limited edition!

52. Turn that frown upside down.

53. Smile, it's the best thing a girl can wear!

54, Stay true.

55. Laughing is the best medicine you can ever get!

56. "You're the king, baby I'm your queen." — Taylor Swift

57. Best Friends Forever!

58.Throwing it back to the good ole days!

59. Ugg Life.

60. I know you like, first-name-basis.

61. *Sends selfie to NASA cuz I'm a star*

62. Basic white girl.

63. Frisky Friday!

64. My thoughts are stars that I cannot fathom into constellations. — "The Fault In Our Stars"

65. "Maybe our okays will be our infinities." — The Fault In Our Stars

66. So hold onto me because I'm a little unsteady — Unsteady

67. This has got to be the best day of my life.

68. She's the beauty and he's the beast.

69. "All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them." — Walt Disney

70. "If you can dream it, you can do it." — Walt Disney

71. "Hakuna Matata, it means no worries for the rest of your days." — "The Lion King"

72. "The past can hurt. But the way I see it, you can either run from it, or learn from it." — "The Lion King."

73. "Remember you're the one who can fill the world with sunshine." — "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"

74 ."The flower that blooms in adversity is the most rare and beautiful of all." — "Mulan"

75. "You don't have time to be timid. You must be bold and daring." — "Beauty and the Beast"

76. "All it takes is faith and trust." — "Peter Pan"

77. "A little consideration, a little thought for others, makes all the difference." — "Winnie the Pooh"

78. "If you focus on what you left behind, you will never be able to see what lies ahead." — "Ratatouille"

79. "Life isn't about finding yourself. Life is about creating yourself." — George Bernard Shaw

80. "A true hero isn't measured by the size of his strength, but by the strength of his heart." — "Hercules"

81. "Life's not a spectator sport. If watchin' is all you're gonna do, then you're gonna watch your life go by without ya." — "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"

82. "The things that make me different are the things that make me ME." — "Winnie the Pooh"

83. "Giving up is for rookies." — "Hercules"

84. "Happiness is the richest thing we will ever own." — Donald Duck

85. "Change is good." — "The Lion King"

86. "In the end, it's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years." — Abraham Lincoln

87. "An unexamined life is not worth living." — Socrates

88. "Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm, but to add color to my sunset sky." — Rabindranath Tagore

89. "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched, they must be felt with the heart." — Helen Keller

90. "The sky broke like an egg into full sunset and the water caught fire." — Pamela Hansford Johnson

91. "Put your heart, mind, and soul into even your smallest acts. This is the secret of success." — Swami Sivananda

92. "Today I choose life. Every morning when I wake up I can choose joy, happiness, negativity, pain... To feel the freedom that comes from being able to continue to make mistakes and choices. Today I choose to feel life, not to deny my humanity, but embrace it." — Kevyn Aucoin

93. "Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'," — Audrey Hepburn

94. "Keep your face always toward the sunshine and shadows will fall behind you." — Walt Whitman

95. "My power's turned on, starting right now I'll be strong." — Rachel Platten

96. "Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared." — Buddha

97. "Let your life lightly dance on the edges of Time like dew on the tip of a leaf." — Rabindranath Tagore

98. "I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'" — Muhammad Ali

99. "Why don't you be you, and I'll be me." — James Bay

100. Life is like a camera, we focus on the positives and develop from the negatives.

Cover Image Credit: Pixabay

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Drug Injections May Go Needle-Free Thanks To New Technology And To Nature

Through imitating nature, the healthcare industry can propel itself into a pain-free treatment age.

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Going to the doctor's office to get a shot was one of the most dreadful tasks as a child, and even larger of a task for our parents to strap us into the car to get there.

Needles are widely feared but also are wildly important in the healthcare field, from delivering vaccines to insulin to chemotherapy. But their necessity doesn't squash our fears. It just forces us to accept them as a necessary evil.

However, thanks to MIT and Harvard researchers, and a special animal, a needle-free reality may be in our future. Instead of our physicians pulling out syringes to administer drug injections, we may be receiving them in a form of a pill. The developers are calling it "SOMA", or the self-orienting millimeter-scale applicator. Made of stainless steel and other biodegradable materials, the white, dome-shaped device can be swallowed easily and will self-orient to the stomach wall and deliver a minuscule injection.

The first tests were done on pigs and rats. In three pigs that swallowed the device, even while moving around, the applicator did its job. The pigs had similar levels of insulin in their bloodstream to if they were to be injected through the skin.

Since the stomach doesn't have many pain receptors, the "prick" from the Soma would not even be felt by the patient. The medicine would enter the bloodstream, and the tiny applicator would be excreted later by the patient. This element is extremely important, especially for diabetic patients. Studies show that being uncomfortable or afraid of needles can lead to a seven to an eight-year delay in starting insulin treatment.

More tests need to be done on animals, but the researchers hope to start testing the Soma device in humans in three years.

The inspiration for a device that rolls over and finds its balance? The leopard tortoise. The engineers of the Soma found that this creature can roll back onto its feet, no matter which way it falls at. The angled, dome-shaped shell allows for this skill and inspired the engineers to shape the device in the way that they did.

Through imitating nature, the healthcare industry can propel itself into a pain-free treatment age.

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