The American Colonists: Among The Wealthiest People In The World In The 18th Century

The American Colonists: Among The Wealthiest People In The World In The 18th Century

Colonial Americans enjoyed one of the highest living standards of their time period.
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When colonists came to North America as a part of a British mercantilist policy, British institutions were transplanted to the new world along with them. Common Law was the primary legal structure of Britain, which established routine relations between the people and the government and for disputes between private persons. It provided the strong protection of colonial property rights through the rule of law. The common law allowed for the establishment of a vigorous market economy in the colonies because of this heightened protection of property rights. This lead to comparatively high affluence and standards of living.

One institution called “market overt” established certain towns as market towns and certain days were market days. Goods, services, and chattel could be legally sold much more easily on these market days and locations and it enhanced the process of free trade. It allowed business activity to be regulated as one way to ensure the protection of property rights. Additionally, the full title passed when goods changed hands and the property right was secure according to the common law. When merchants had disputes, there were specific courts of “pied powder” which would allow merchants to swiftly resolve disagreements with others, even while on the move. Market overt was set up in all of the colonies by the 1630s and '40s. Growing markets in the colonies gave rise to intermediary merchants, wholesalers, and retailers who expanded the market process in the years to come.

Some information about the incomes of colonists shows that there was generally a wide income gap. In 1774, the top 10 percent of Boston citizens owned 57 percent of the wealth in the city. Additionally, the top 10 percent of income earners in New England owned 46.8 percent of the wealth. As Howard Zinn points out in his book “A People’s History of the United States,” there was also a significant amount of poverty in American cities. Certainly, the high amount of poverty is a strong negative and many would also look upon the income inequality with disdain. However, when we look at the data, we find that the average American colonist was among the most affluent and had among the highest standards of living in the world in the 1770s.

Common estimates of the real wealth that was owned by the average colonist are about $14,000. Incomes ranged from $2,100 to $3,500 per capita. This level of affluence approached that of those in Britain. When adjusted for the lower tax rates that were paid in the colonies, Americans had one of the highest disposable incomes in the world.

In addition to the high affluence of the average American colonist, there was also a comparatively higher quality of life. Due to the land resources, food was comparatively plentiful and wood, which served as a prime energy source, was cheap and abundant. The population density was low, which lessened the spread of diseases. This high quality of life led to high birth rates and lower death rates than Europe, which led to a strong population growth of 3 percent per year.

Another important way to measure a society’s standard of living is through measuring its people’s average heights. According to research from Richard Steckel, taller average heights are typically connected to a higher standard of living with better health care and a healthier/more plentiful diet. In the 1770s, the average colonial soldier stood at five foot eight, which was two inches taller than the average British soldier. This signals that American colonists might've had a better standard of living than their British counterparts.

Affluence and the standard of living for the average American colonist were among the highest, if not the highest in the world during the 1770s, despite the distribution of income being quite uneven. This high affluence and standard of living can be attributed to the expansive market economy that blossomed due to strong protection of property rights. This was secured by the colonial establishment of common law institutions.

Most statistics are taken from Cain & Hughes' Textbook “American Economic History,” which gathers from countless pieces of published economic research.

Cover Image Credit: Robert Finale Paintings

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I'm The Girl Who'd Rather Raise A Family Than A Feminist Protest Sign

You raise your protest picket signs and I’ll raise my white picket fence.
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Social Media feeds are constantly filled with quotes on women's rights, protests with mobs of women, and an array of cleverly worded picket signs.

Good for them, standing up for their beliefs and opinions. Will I be joining my tight-knit family of the same gender?

Nope, no thank you.

Don't get me wrong, I am not going to be oblivious to my history and the advancements that women have fought to achieve. I am aware that the strides made by many women before me have provided us with voting rights, a voice, equality, and equal pay in the workforce.

SEE ALSO: To The Girl Who Would Rather Raise A Family Than A Feminist Protest Sign

For that, I am deeply thankful. But at this day in age, I know more female managers in the workforce than male. I know more women in business than men. I know more female students in STEM programs than male students. So what’s with all the hype? We are girl bosses, we can run the world, we don’t need to fight the system anymore.

Please stop.

Because it is insulting to the rest of us girls who are okay with being homemakers, wives, or stay-at-home moms. It's dividing our sisterhood, and it needs to stop.

All these protests and strong statements make us feel like now we HAVE to obtain a power position in our career. It's our rightful duty to our sisters. And if we do not, we are a disappointment to the gender and it makes us look weak.

Weak to the point where I feel ashamed to say to a friend “I want to be a stay at home mom someday.” Then have them look at me like I must have been brain-washed by a man because that can be the only explanation. I'm tired of feeling belittled for being a traditionalist.

Why?

Because why should I feel bad for wanting to create a comfortable home for my future family, cooking for my husband, being a soccer mom, keeping my house tidy? Because honestly, I cannot wait.

I will have no problem taking my future husband’s last name, and following his lead.

The Bible appoints men to be the head of a family, and for wives to submit to their husbands. (This can be interpreted in so many ways, so don't get your panties in a bunch at the word “submit”). God specifically made women to be gentle and caring, and we should not be afraid to embrace that. God created men to be leaders with the strength to carry the weight of a family.

However, in no way does this mean that the roles cannot be flipped. If you want to take on the responsibility, by all means, you go girl. But for me personally? I'm sensitive, I cry during horror movies, I'm afraid of basements and dark rooms. I, in no way, am strong enough to take on the tasks that men have been appointed to. And I'm okay with that.

So please, let me look forward to baking cookies for bake sales and driving a mom car.

And I'll support you in your endeavors and climb to the top of the corporate ladder. It doesn't matter what side you are on as long as we support each other, because we all need some girl power.

Cover Image Credit: Unsplash

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Educate Yourself And Spread Facts, Not Bias

Do you know the truth? Or are you allowing rumors to cloud your judgement of the political arena?

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In our society, the government has grown to be a capitalistic effort. Payout, backroom deals, we are unaware of many actions those that represent us take behind closed doors. The transparency we think we see is unrealistic and just not the way that politics actually work. In the entire world, governance has become essential to the survival and future of society. No two governments are the same, and they are essentially ever changing as many people of power change constantly.

This being said influence from these individuals rule the political sphere. Whether it be a local councilperson, senator, governor, or even the president.IN the U.S. our daily lives and wellbeing rest in the hands of the few. Some of these politicians are honest and work genuinely for the people. However, agenda frequently takes over the arena and leaves the decisions of our livelihood to the gains of politicians.

Our generation has the lowest voter turnout, leaving the decisions that we do have to older generations. Some of those hold ideologies that are not relevant nor acceptable to the climate we live in today. This is not a call to action but more of a thought. As someone who was incredibly uninvolved in politics, I wanted to look at why I lacked the care that other people my age held so passionately. I believe it starts with my distaste of conflict, which many people my age also agree with. Politics can lead to confrontation and negative conversation.

Therefore, who would want to make friendships and interactions awkward with an avoidable subject. I found myself straying from these conversations and becoming uncomfortable when friends assert opinions that I do not agree with. However, in taking classes where this environment hinges the change in industries I study. I was forced to form some type of opinion in the matter.

From here I decided to change the lens on how I looked at politics. Instead of shying away, I really listened to what my professors felt about it and their assertions. I then did my own research, looking into the history of matters that my peers and professors talked about. Educating myself on what the facts were, versus believing in rumors that I heard through the grapevine.

I started engaging friends in a positive manner, as opposing opinions are valuable in a holistic situational viewpoint. I became comfortable in the discomfort of politics and worked to learn what may be in store for our world. My point for this is to educate yourself on genuine fact. Do not assert opinions based on information that your friend or even a professor gives you, keep your knowledge on the subject relevant.

You never know when legislation may come out that seriously effects your way of life. Most importantly, knowledge is power and power is what those that leave us in ignorance have over us.

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