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The names and dates of the reigns of the first four kings, as well as the alternation of Sabin and Latin names, are more legendary than historical. The last three kings, of Etruscan origin, have an existence which seems less uncertain.
It is evident that all this is only a legend although archeology shows us little by little that these kings if they did not exist as the ancient history, describes them, have at least in the very Outlines were real as chief of a shepherd’s tribe. The period when kings ruled Rome could estimate at 245 years.
1. Romulus: 1st King of Rome
Romulus is a name that means, simply, "Roman" as written by Dominique Briquel (archaeologist, a specialist in Etruscology and pre-Roman times): "the name of Romulus is taken from Rome", which suggests that this character is a pure invention of the legend. Nothing makes more reference to a tale than the founding of Rome by the twins Romulus and Remus. We this legend well by the writings of the ancient Romans, notably Cicero, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Livy and Plutarch, let us not forget for a purely imaginary reading Virgil. In fact, the only traces that remain of this period are archaeological works that confirm that a city was built on the Palatine in the 8th century. BC
The myth tells us that her mother's name was Rhea Silvia, and her father would have known to be the god Mars who came to earth attracted by her beauty and raped her in a wood. She was the daughter of the king of Alba, Numitor, who had been ousted from the throne by his brother Amulius. She also bore the name of Ilia, she was obliged by her uncle to become a Vestal, devoted to honor, and, what was most important in the eyes of this uncle, to remain childless. But the god Mars arrived, raped her, she gave birth to twins. Romulus would have been born in second position and thus would have had a nickname: "Altellus" = the little other, opinion defended by Festus; in the eyes of legend, the fact that he spent an abandoned childhood is a sign that he belongs to the domain of heroism. And legend, always, wanted them to be saved from the death that Amelius had reserved for them by those who were charged to execute them, they were moved by their tender age, they deposited them in a wicker basket at the edge of the Tiber.
2. Numa Pompilius: 2nd king of Rome after Romulus
It is of Sabine origin, this origin for early kings, is held to be entirely legendary. According to this legend, he was elected by the Senate after a year interregnum. He was a very peaceful and religious king. He is said to have been the founder of the rites of the Roman religion. He created the good and bad days. He constituted the college of Pontiffs, Flamines, Augures, Vestals, Saliens, Féciaux. He was the builder of the temple of Janus which was to remain with the doors open or closed following a state of war or peace.
"... he raised the temple of Janus. This temple, built at the bottom of Argilete, became the symbol of peace and war. Open, it was the signal that called the citizens to arms; closed, he announced that peace reigned among all the neighboring nations. " Livy, 1, 19.
He made 11 shields and placed them in his royal palace ( Regia ), at the birth of this legend, we find the fact that he is said to have received from the hands of Jupiter or Mars a shield (ancile).
Finding that the right of property was not sufficiently protected, he created the gods Terms, which were grossly carved beings that delimited the domains, they served as demarcation, death could punish anyone who touched them. He instituted a new calendar, he added two months (January, February) to the old one, which was only ten months old. He thus synchronized the solar year with the lunar year. Always the legend tells that he was very influenced by the nymph Egeria who lived in a wood near the door Capene. He married her on the death of his wife Tatia who was the daughter of Titus Tatius, the one who ruled for a short time together with Romulus.
3. Tullus Hostilius: 3rd King of Rome, of Sabine origin
Roman historians tell us that a peaceful king succeeded a warrior king. He was the grandson of a companion of Romulus. He embodies the third function: war, functions defined by DUMEZIL, he compares it to the god INDRA. He was elected king by the Roman people at the end of an interruption that lasted one year. All his life he led Rome to war with his neighbors; This is how he defeated the Veii (VEIES city) and the Fidénates (FIDENE city), Etruscan cities. He declared war on Albe la Longue. In the midst of a fight between the two armies, the Albans and Romans relied on champions; this is how the famous episode of Horaces and Curiaces took place, whose outcome is well known. He conquered the city of Albe (the mother city of Rome) and deported his population to Rome. In the midst of all these wars, he had time to build the house where the Senate met: the CURIA HOSTILIA . He is also at the origin of the curule chair, lictors,) next Macrobe. At the end of his life, he will become mad and perish struck by the thunderbolt that set fire to his palace, it is said that it was Jupiter, himself, who would have launched it because the rituals concerning him, during a sacrifice, would have been respected.
4. Ancus Marcius: 4th king of Rome, of Sabine origin
The legend says of him that he reigned from 641 BC to 616 BC He was the grandson of Numa Pompilius : "The assembled assemblies, Ancus Marcus was elected king by the people. The Senate ratified the election. This prince was grandson of Numa by his daughter. "Titus Live, 1, 32. It should be noted that royalty was elective. Once on the throne, he restores religious practices that had been forgotten in the time of his predecessor. Despite this spiritual side, he was also a warrior king who had to fight against his neighbors; in particular, he had to face the Latins whom he beat, he deported them to the foot of Mount Aventine who then left Rome. It was a builder, in particular we owe him the SUBLICUS bridge which, first, crossed the Tiber. Legend has it that he was at the origin of the port of OSTIE but archeology shows that this creation was later. His wife is initially, according to legend, the adoration of a goddess: " Venus Calva ", with other women, she would have been suffering from a mysterious disease that would have made them bald. To soften the queen's pain, he had a statue of Venus, who was bald, made. At his death, his son was not old enough to rule, the crown was given to Tarquin the Elder who had gained his confidence and was another himself.
5. Tarquin the Elder: 5th King of Rome, of Etruscan origin
He created the golden bubble that was the hallmark of youth with the pretext toga. According to Macrobius, these insignia were first of all rewards which he gave to his fourteen-year-old son when he killed a Sabin.
6. Servius Tullius: 6th King of Rome
From his real name MASTARNA or MACSTARNA. He was the second king of Rome of Etruscan origin. According to tradition, he reigned from 578 BC to 53. Historians often compare it to Romulus, especially for the miraculous nature of his birth. It would be born of a slave, as I said above, and the appearance of a phallus in the middle of the flames (hence the reference to Vulcan, god of fire); as for Romulus, following some ancient historians, it would have been conceived by a virile member. It appeared in the middle of an intense focus. In fact, following the Emperor Claudius, who was a great specialist in Etruscan history, he would have been, quite simply, a companion ( sodalis ) to a bandleader: VIBENNA. One of the principal acts of the legislation which he established was to define the task of a sensor. Every Roman citizen had to register himself in the register of the "cens" and had to declare all the property of which he was the possessor under penalty; in case failing to be beaten and sold as a slave. He perished, murdered, by a son of Tarquin the Elder, Tarquin the Superb, married to his daughter, TULLIA, who, at the height of horror, rolled his chariot on the body of his father.
7. Tarquin the Superb: 7th and last king of Rome
Like its two predecessors, it was of Etruscan origin. He would be the son or grandson of Tarquin the Elder. He ascended the throne in the blood of Servius Tullius, who was also his father-in-law, whom he had murdered. But this relationship, according to historians of our time, has no historical truth. He continued his reign as ancient historians describe it, showing his dictatorial ways. "For all his rights were in force, he who had neither the votes of the people nor the consent of the Senate. Not being able to count on the affection of the citizens, he had to reign by terror. " Livy, I, 49. It is at the origin of the annual festivals of the Latin Fairies which commemorate the assimilation by Rome of 47 tribes of Lazio. He forbade the funeral of the king whom he succeeded, and he eliminated the senators who had been faithful to him.
Being the girl that is falling for the boy is never easy.
You constantly text my phone telling me that you want to see me and hang out, even though we may not have sex we cuddle and that’s intimacy in its own. I’m tired of buying you food and being there for you like a girlfriend when you consistently tell me you aren't ready for a girlfriend. I am constantly feeling I’m getting slapped in the face because I’m doing all these things and getting nothing in return. Every day I feel myself liking you more which is just crazy because why would I even waste my time liking someone there isn’t a future with. I just want you to be honest with me and with yourself, tell me how you feel from your heart, stop just saying you aren’t ready. You are wasting time telling me you aren’t ready because while you are “getting ready” some guy somewhere else is telling me that he likes me and thinks I’m beautiful and wants to date me. I’m not asking for much, but I at least want exclusivity because you ask me for all these things but in return you give me nothing.
You can go out today and sleep with someone new and I wouldn’t have the right to care and I don’t like that. You mean the world to me so I want to have the right to care. I want you to want to be claimed, not be force it on you. You are with me constantly anyway, what would be so bad about being my boyfriend? Are you ashamed of me for some reason? If you can sleep with me in private, why can’t you claim me in public? Being the girl that is falling for the boy is never easy, and it is especially not easy when the boy doesn’t feel the same way.
-The girl who fell for you
Even if both are beyond perfect.
From reading the books in eighth grade to watching the television show all throughout high school, "Pretty Little Liars"basically defined my teenage existence. I was completely and totally obsessed on all accounts. However, even though I loved the fact that the books and the show are starkly different, there are simply just some ways in which the books are much better. Let's take a look:
The Liars were not very likable at times.Giphy
OK, so I get that this is slightly controversial. I read the books first, and the way I see it, the Liars aren't just called that because of the Ali-related secrets they keep. Actually, the books have little to do about Ali- it's all about the negative impact Ali had on their lives, transforming them into the people they are today. Hanna was nasty and downright narcissistic in the beginning of the book series. Emily was a whiny girl willing to do anything to see Ali again, while Aria's desire for a more exciting life always left her with less than she started with. Spencer had this sickening need for perfection that drove her to do things some people could never even imagine. These girls were not angels, and could not be defended in their actions during certain parts of the series. In this sense, I think it is much more powerful to have main characters that you dislike in order to get a message across, which author Sara Shepard does stunningly. Although I liked the fact that I could sympathize and relate to the girls in the ABC Family show, to me it just does not fall in line with the premise of this series.
Spencer Hastings and Andrew Campbell were the ultimate OTP.
Yes, you heard me. Toby and Spencer were never even a consideration as a couple in the book series, due to Toby's suicide in the second book, "Flawless." (Note: Toby was an entirely different character in the TV series, and I have to admit that is something I like about the show more.) On the other hand, Spencer and Andrew were in a relationship for a considerable amount of time in the books, and were a fan favorite for many people. Their relationship made them the ultimate power couple in high school, and I shipped them so hard. I would have loved to see this happen in the series, even if it meant sacrificing a portion of Spoby's timeline
On the note of relationships: Ezra Fitz
Mr. Fitz was not a significant portion of Aria's life throughout the book series. Ezra, although cute at first, was deemed creepy and overall problematic early on in the series, leaving a bad taste in every reader's mouth. Aria and Ezra broke up rather quickly, and it was not pretty. So, I was very surprised to see how the relationship developed on the television show. I have the utmost unpopular opinion when it comes to Ezra on the TV show, in which I have always despised him. I really do wish that he was not such a huge part of the TV series, and prefer the message the books sent out when his relationship with Aria did not work out.
There is a lot more suspense and horror within each mystery.
I know this is a heavy claim since it seems that everywhere you turn PLL is unleashing a new bombshell on the show. What I'm trying to say is that there was a lot more of the classic mystery/horror element to the books that the TV show lost over time. Since the show can be all-action, all-reveal at times, inevitably at other times it can just seem to drag out. There is nothing I hate more than getting bored with a television show, and this happens quite often with PLL. The books can be deemed much more captivating and interesting. They keep to a few core mysteries, but within each of these mysteries lies a lot more suspense and horror that keeps everyone on the edge on their seats while reading. I love the intricacy of who killed Ali, which is focused on in the books, more so than the constant switching of A's and good guys/bad gals and whatnot, which is focused on in the show.
The families were more of an integral part of the book series.
I'm not saying that the families of each of the girls are irrelevant in the show, because that is not true by any means. Instead I'm saying that each family had a much different role and their roles fit in better within the entire context of the series. Hanna's mom in the books was nothing like her television counterpart- she was a barely present, careless business mogul who treated her daughter like she did not even exist.
Even though Ms. Marin was less present, her role was essential in understanding Hanna's story-line and why she acted in certain ways. The divorce between Aria's parents was a lot more significant and played into her relationship with her brother, Mike, as well as how she behaved during the series. Spencer's relationship with her sister, Melissa, took up a large portion of content in the books, and was emphasized to a greater extent. Their disagreements were physical, brutal, and downright terrifying at times, which contributes in understanding Spencer's personality and overall family dynamics. Lastly, Emily's parents were a lot more conservative in the books, and their reaction when she came out was a lot different from the television series. Emily's mom was still not very understanding on the show, but the magnitude of her disapproval is greater in the books. This explained a lot more about Emily's personality in the books and why Ali has such a strong influence on her, even when she was not there.
So, even though I love both the television show and the book series, there are many ways in which I believe the books to be better. Sure, there are definitely some ways in which the show is better. But, for now, I encourage anyone who wants to read something over their Winter Break to start the "Pretty Little Liars"book series. There is a lot more suspense, and it is fun to pick out the differences from the television show and see which one you like more. You never know, after reading them, you could come to an entirely different conclusion than me.
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I just want you to know you are loved. You are loved so very much.
Recently I was blessed to be a counselor at a wonderful camp, secluded in a cornfield somewhere in Virginia. I consider myself to be a seasoned camp counselor, as I have not only been a camper for most of my life but have been privileged enough to work multiple camps with all kinds of different facilities. I have worked camps with multi-thousand dollar facilities, with zip lines, rock walls, ropes courses, and boats. I have worked at camps with amazing water sports, camps with paintball, camps with canoes and paddle boats and floating blobs or trampolines in the middle of the water. I have worked at camps with in ground pools and camps without any pools, and even some camps with go-karts. I've had problem kids, kids who refuse to listen to anything I say, kids who sneak out after lights out to meet a significant other, and kids who are every camp counselors dream.
This past week, I was blessed with an amazing group of girls. They listened to almost everything I said, they cleaned like they were related to Danny Tanner, they sat on the front row every time service started, they lifted their hands in worship, they showed excellent sportsmanship during team games, and they were sweet, kind, caring, inclusive, and team players. It was wonderful. But while I watched my girls and I felt my heart swell for the wonderful experiences they were having I noticed something. I noticed the girl sitting in the back row with her knees drawn up to her chest. I noticed the boy slouched down in his seat, glancing around as if he was afraid someone would try and come speak to him. I noticed the girl with her her eyes on the floor, her headphones in, not joining in the service. Not hearing the words of love and hope the preacher spoke about their lives.
My heart, bursting with happiness and pride only moments before broke into pieces To the girl in the back row, I just want you to know you are loved. You are loved so very much. You may not realize it, but you are. I don't know your story. I don't know if you come from a broken home. I don't know if you have had something traumatic happen to you. Maybe you are just shy. Maybe you don't like crowds. But dear precious girl, do not let these things keep you from missing out on a wonderful experience. I know what it's like to be the girl on the front row, the happy girl with lots of friends. But I also know what it is like to be the girl in the back row, the girl who is terrified of being called out and embarrassed, but secretly hopes someone will anyway. I don’t know your story, but I can guess what you are feeling. You want someone to pay attention to you, someone to give you hope. Someone to tell you that you aren't worthless.
You aren’t worthless. You are worth more than you ever dreamed. My sweet beautiful girl, hiding on the back row, you are a princess. You were bought with the highest price anyone can pay. Have you ever dreamed of a prince charming to come riding up in a white Camry and whisk you away from everything? You have a prince charming. He is the prince of peace, and his name is wonderful, counselor, healer, redeemer, friend. He is a relentless lover, pursuing you without ceasing. I know you can't always feel his presence. Neither can I. But he is there. He is there when you don’t see him when you don’t feel him, and when you think everyone else has abandoned you, he is there. He will never leave you, he promises to stick closer to you than your own family. Oh my sweet girl sitting on the back row, I pray you will one day feel his loving arms surrounding you. I know how scared you must be.
The back row is safe. It’s a small island in the midst of the self-proclaimed Jesus freaks. The back row is where no one will make you stand up in front of everyone. The back row is where no one falls over and says weird things that you can not understand. The back row is where no one pays attention to you, and no one notices you, even when you secretly hope someone will. But there is a downside to the safety of the back row, perhaps you may have started to realize this as camp drew to a close. In the back row, you aren’t surrounded by people who want to love on you. In the back row, there is no one to come up and put their arm around you while you cry. There is no one to pray for you, hold you, or show you the compassion, mercy, love, forgiveness, and acceptance that you deserve and desperately seek. There is no healing in safety. Think of going to the doctor’s office.
You need a shot to get better from an illness, but the needle is big and you are scared. The shot may hurt, but without it, how will you get better? Beautiful princess in the back row with your head down, please look up. I am here. I see you. You won’t be alone. If you need someone to sit with you, please just make eye contact with me. I will be there. You have left camp now. I don’t know what you are doing or how things are at home, but I am praying for you. At night, as your tears wet your pillow, I am praying for the Father to the Fatherless comes and surrounds you with his love. During your school days, as you seek acceptance from the other kids, I will be praying you find it in the one who wants to be your Savior. Someone saw you. Someone noticed. Someone cared. Next Sunday at church, next Wednesday at youth group, I pray you will move a seat closer. I pray you will find your courage and your boldness. Because sweet, sweet girl on the back row, someone noticed you, and someone cares. To the girl in the back row, if no one else tells you this today, I want you to know, I love you, and so does Jesus.
"As to the U.N., things will be different after Jan. 20th"- Donald J. Trump
The United Nations (UN) has been in existence since June of 1945. Since then, the world has come together to work on and solve some of the harshest problems that face the Human Race. Be it children in societal ills like Human Trafficking, natural issues like Deforestation, or issues of extreme poverty, the UN has worked together in an attempt to make it a better place for us all. It's the only organization in the history of the world to bring people together in a willing, peaceful way; a feat that not even the League of Nations could do in the Post- WWI era. Why was it that one organization failed, and the other one is still going strong, 72 years later?
Well, one could argue that it was and is United States involvement that has kept it afloat for so long. The League was created in the Paris Peace Conference following WWI at the urging of President Woodrow Willson as the first Intergovernmental organization who's sole purpose was to maintain world peace. However, when the charter was presented to the US senate for ratification, it was shot down due to extreme isolationism. Because of this, the LON was never able to gain the political traction that it needed to be an effective force in the world and ultimately led to WWII.
Through the horrors of WWII, it was revealed that the world needed to unite more than ever. Towards the end of the war effort, 51 nations signed the charter of the UN, though, it did not come into power until after the ratification of the charter by the P5 (Russia, China, France, UK, and the USA), as well as a majority of the remaining countries.
Since that time, the UN has done incredible things to make the world a better place. They created the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, which affirms the basic rights of each and every individual on the planet, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, which went into effect in 1970, banning the manufacture of nuclear weapons technology, countless Peacekeeping missions (we can debate the effectiveness of the peacekeepers at a later date), UNICEF, and lots of other things.
So, this brings me to the reason why I am writing this. In recent weeks, President-elect Donald Trump has been less-than-friendly to the Intergovernmental organization. Calling it a club for people to go to and "have a good time" and calling it a "waste of time and money." If the President-elect continues with this dangerous rhetoric, the dangers would be astronomical. The risk with this rhetoric is the possibility of the U.S. drawing out of the UN, which would have domino effects. It would effectively remove us from all the UN treaties that we are a part of, like the NPT, which would put us in the same league of North Korea as the only two nations to withdraw from it. Our support of peacekeeping ops, various UN programs, and risk the stability of the entire nation.
Now, I am far from biased in writing this. I have participated in Model UN for the past 2 years, this year will mark my third conference, and I have fallen in love with what the UN stands for. It brings people together, from throughout the world, to fight common problems. Yes, it may not be effective, or the best organized, or well oiled like smaller organizations, but neither is our government. Why would we not support something that has kept the world from full scale war for the past 70 years?
1. Brittany Morgan, National Writer's Society
2. Radhi, SUNY Stony Brook
3. Kristen Haddox, Penn State University
4. Jennifer Kustanovich, SUNY Stony Brook
5. Clare Regelbrugge, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign