The 19th Amendment Did Not Affect All Women

The 19th Amendment Did Not Affect All Women

The fight for Voting Rights across the country is still a struggle.
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It’s a fact we’ve learned to regurgitate; in the year 1920, the 19th Amendment was ratified. It prohibited any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on account of their gender. It's been hailed as the one of the greatest, if the not the greatest achievement for our country's women's rights movement.

What we don’t hear, is that two years after this amendment was passed, the Supreme Court ruled people of Japanese heritage were ineligible to become naturalized citizens -- a court found the same with Asian Indians in the following year. Not being able to become naturalized citizens, of course, affected what demographic of women could actually vote. In 1924, Native Americans were granted citizenship through the Indian Citizenship Act, but many states still passed laws preventing Native Americans from voting, for as late as the year 1957.

It wasn’t until 1943 that Chinese Americans were first permitted to become citizens, after the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed. For Filipinos, it wasn’t until 1946; for Japanese Americans and other Asian Americans, this did not come until 1952. In 1964, women of lower socio-economic status were faced with one less barrier to voting; there was now no tax to pay anywhere in the country in order to vote.

In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed abolishing legal barriers that prevented black Americans from voting. In 1990, polling centers were required to have accommodations for Americans with disabilities with the Americans with Disabilities Act. In the year 2000, a federal court decided US Territories could not vote in presidential elections. The fight for Voting Rights across the country is still a struggle; in this month, alone, a federal appeals court struck down a voter ID law in North Carolina that was described as targeting African American voters "with almost surgical precision."

Why is it, then, that we accept the 19th Amendment as being the point when women were allowed the right to vote? It's presented in our history classes, our media, etc., as if the struggle to get women to vote ended with the passing of this amendment to the Constitution, which is simply not true. To state so would be to exclude essentially all women of color, among white women who couldn't afford to pay a poll tax.

Some could argue there’s exceptions to every fact and law in our history, but it’s not as if one specific group of women were an exception to this. Asian women, Native American women, black women, poor women and more were unable to exercise their right to vote, and their struggles have been arguably erased in the acceptation of the 19th Amendment being the point in which all women could vote.

When we use the word women, we assume it applies to women of every race and ethnicity; instead, it’s been reduced to mean only white women. When we say women earned the right to vote in 1920, we're whitewashing history. To be fair, we have no reason to not pause and think if this is a whitewashing of history, because of the pure lack of information on voting rights of marginalized and minority groups in our country.

Often, high school American history classes have been dubbed as being a history of "great white men." It's not hard to picture the only real segment of women's history taught in most history classes really only applies to that of "great white women." It shouldn’t be surprising that we’ve been conditioned to accept the notion that saying women got the right to vote in 1920 as appropriate, because of how our history is often taught to us.

Recently, with the recognition of white feminism becoming slowly more prevalent in our country's society, it’s important for us as a people to not portray women’s struggles as merely white women’s struggles. It's more than frustrating to see our politicians, socially-conscious celebrities, and other prominent figures speak as if the 19th Amendment was the end of women's struggle for voting rights. It's easy to accept the erasing of the history. After all, most people were taught a history that erased struggles of marginalized groups. It’s harder to try to write history back into a place it deserves to be. Women worked hard for the 19th Amendment to be ratified. It's time to recognize women that also worked hard for their own voting struggles, long after the 19th Amendment was ratified.

Cover Image Credit: Bio.

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12 Things Texans Hate About Oklahoma

We all know Texas is the superior state, but just why do we Texans hate Oklahoma so much?
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So, everyone on the planet knows that Texas is indisputably THE BEST state in this glorious country and because of this, we Texans deem every other state inferior. It also may seem that we have a 'rivalry' with Oklahoma (although, it's no contest which state is superior). However, this rivalry is actually more of a disdain and for many good reasons. That being said, here's a list of 12 credible, bona-fide reasons that Texans hate the state of Oklahoma.

1. The Constant Wind

Everyone has heard that the wind is constantly blowing in Oklahoma, but you don’t realize how annoying that is until you live here. You think you walk outside looking good, but the wind is like, “Haha, not today.” Also, it’s not the kind of cool breeze that’s refreshing on a hot day; if it’s cold outside, the wind is freezing cold, if it’s hot outside, the wind is a gust of hot, humid air.

2. No Buc-ee’s

If you haven’t heard of the amazing-ness that is Buc-ee’s, then you are missing out. Buc-ee’s is the most awesome gas station. They have everything, and by that, I mean everything. They even have Comfort Colors tanks with the Buc-ee’s logos, as well as the cleanest gas station bathrooms you’ll find anywhere. Unfortunately, unless you’ve ever driven to south Texas, you’ve possibly never heard of Buc-ee’s, which is a real shame.

3. Narrow Lanes

First off, the roads in Oklahoma are absolutely atrocious. The first grievance on this list is that the lanes are just too small. You think I’m going to be able to fit my dually truck and horse trailer in between these lines? Yeah, I don’t think so, that Prius barely fits.

4. Slow Speed Limits

On the subject of roads, the highways here have an average speed limit of 55. You have to get on a toll road to even have a speed limit of 75. That would not fly in Texas. How do you expect to get anywhere quickly if you have to go 55 mph? That’s child’s play. Texas boasts the highest speed limit in the United States, something we utilize to its full potential.

5. No HEB

HEB, aka the BEST grocery store on the planet, probably in the universe, but I cannot confirm, only has stores in Texas. And even then, the northernmost store is all the way in Burleson. I mean, you can buy Whataburger’s fancy ketchup by the bottle; what more can you ask for?

6. OU

The Red River rivalry is a well-known rivalry between OU (University of Oklahoma- Sooners) and UT (University of Texas- Longhorns). Admittedly, there is a lot of division between Texans on this issue, but if you’re a diehard Texan, then chances are you hate OU simply on principle.

7. Majorly Lacking Major League Sports Teams

As a Texan, we’re used to having our pick of major league sports teams, whether it be football, basketball, or baseball, and trash talking other Texans that root for the rival team is half the fun. All Oklahomans have are the OKC Thunder, and I guess hockey, but who really follows that any way? It’s America, football is king here and baseball is the national pastime.

8. Eternal Road Construction

Road construction is a necessary evil; it’s always going on. However, at least in Texas, you see actual progress. In Oklahoma, roads are cut down to one lane for months on end with no visible progress to be seen.

9. Increased Sales Tax

According to taxfoundation.org, the combined state and average local sales tax rate for 2015 is 8.77% in Oklahoma compared to 8.05 %. This seems like something really petty to add on to this list, but hey, I don’t want the government any more money than it has to. Also, when you start being an actual adult, Texas is one of seven states that does not charge state income tax.

10. No Coastline

Oklahoma is landlocked. For a Texan, whose home state boasts 367 miles of coastline (the 6th highest in the United States), this is stifling.

11. Mite Infestations

Apparently, this past summer and fall, there was an outbreak of mites that like to bite people. They were worse than mosquito bites and quite frankly, a pain in the butt to deal with. If you walked across any patch of grass, chances were you woke up with an itchy, red sore from this microscopic

12. It’s Just Not Texas

Any Texan can tell you, as we are know for our rather fanatic state pride, that there’s just something about Texas that feels like home. And no matter how many great things a city has to be proud of, nothing will ever replace Texas. Everything’s better in Texas and there’s no denying it.

Cover Image Credit: Pinterest

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5 Most Underrated Sports People Should Consider Watching

The common five sports that are underrated.

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There are sports that get more attention than others. That is because of the amount emphasis that people put on particular sports. There are some sports that are underrated because some people don't understand the sports or they think that it is just boring. Today I am going to address some of the things that people say about the common five sports that I think are underrated.

1. Golf

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Golf is so underrated as a sport. I have heard all kinds of reasons why people don't watch golf. They say it's boring and hard to watch, it takes too long for a round to be played, and no one can watch golf for 3 hours. As a person who watches a lot of golf, I can offer some insight into the sport.

The people who say golf is boring I have found don't know about golf. They don't understand the scoring or they don't know a lot of the golfers. It is easier to find a golfer or golfers and follow them. I found it easier to watch once I found golfers (86 to be exact) to follow and watch.

2. Racing

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There are many forms of racing; NASCAR, INDYCAR, IMSA, F1, etc. If a person really understood and looked there is a type of racing for everyone. If you like a variety of racing or racing tracks than INDYCAR is the type of racing for you. If you like road courses and street courses than F1 and IMSA is the racing for you. If you like motorcycles, guess what Moto GP is the racing for you. It is an intense and exciting form of racing using motorcycles. There is also supercross which is also as cool as Moto GP.

I know that people believe that racing is too long but if you think about it all sports are over 2 hours longs (I.e., football and basketball). Once you find a type of racing that you like or find interesting it is easier to watch racing. The time does not mean anything because if you think about it all sports are long. If you use they go round in circles all day, well basketball and football run up and down a court or field all day. It is the same amount of strategy and mental preparedness that goes into racing like any other sport.

3. Hockey

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Yes, hockey. Unfortunately and fortunately it has to compete with football and basketball. Not just professional football and basketball, but also college basketball and football. Hockey is another sport that can be long. If you don't live in the big cities than it gets hard for the hockey teams to compete.

Hockey is a fun sport because of the exciting play and the rivalries in hockey. There are a lot of rivalries from the Original Six to division/conference rivalries.

There is not only ice hockey, but also field hockey. Field hockey does not get enough recognition because people commonly confuse it with lacrosse. Its nothing like lacrosse, it more like ice hockey in a sense that there is a good amount of body contact in field hockey as well.

4. Baseball

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Baseball takes TOO LONG!!! But baseball is action packed and has great rivalries. As a person who grew up in Connecticut, I know rivalry. The rivalries within New York and the rivalry with Boston. As a person who had two older brothers who played baseball, it has been my whole life. I can honestly say that baseball can be fun and interesting. You have learned about the sport and pick a team, and once you do that you will enjoy it.

5. Archery

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I know what everyone thinks when they hear archery, summer camp. But as a competitive sport, it is actually really fun. From the longbow to the compound and recurve bow, the sport, which you learn how to play, is really fun and entertaining. The scoring and the technique of the sport is pretty self-explanatory.


There are a ton of sports that are underrated, but these are the five common ones that I hear people talk about. People do not watch these sports because they do not understand the sport or they are not aware of the most popular people in sports.

I know when I first started watching and following these five sports I looked up with are the most popular people in that particular sport. I found the team or player that I liked in each of these sports and fell in love with the sport. I am a person who loves all sports (I have to in order to fit into my family), it just these sports get a bad rep and I wanted to address it.

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