Canadian Researchers Discover Bacteria Cells That Does Not Contain Mitochondria

Canadian Researchers Discover Bacteria Cells That Does Not Contain Mitochondria

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In high school biology, we all learned that mitochondria are the powerhouse of cell. For anyone who slept through it, mitochondria are the bacteria-like organelles found in the gooey cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes are a special subset of organisms that have a nucleus to house their DNA. Here you can see the noteworthy differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes, which have no nucleus:

Mitochondria are different from other organelles for two important reasons.

Firstly, they are necessary for cells to produce energy as they are central to the process of cellular respiration.

Secondly, they contain their own DNA and are believed to have once existed as separate prokaryotic organisms that entered the cells of ancient eukaryotic organisms in a symbiotic exchange - ATP (energy) production for protection.

Because of the importance of their functions, scientists hypothesized for many years that they were indisputably necessary for the survival of a eukaryotic cell. A paper published in Current Biology last week, however, has brought all of that into question. The team from the University of British Columbia has reported the discovery of a single-celled eukaryotic organism, called Monocerconoides, native to the gut of the chinchilla, that apparently survives without our favorite organelle.

The researchers have guessed that, since oxygen (a necessity for cellular respiration to occur) is scarce in its native environment, mitochondria became more trouble than they were worth and were ejected by the cell.

Monocerconoides has simply adopted the DNA from a bacterium that performs the necessary functions of a mitochondrion floating freely in the cytoplasm. This discovery points to a whole host of possibilities for single-celled organisms and speaks to the incredible adaptability of life in general.

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22 Girl Names Your Random College Roommate Will Have, And The Type Of Roommate They Are

Will she be your BFF?
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Every roommate situation in college is going to be different.

All you can do is hope and pray that they'll just leave you alone for the most part. A lot of the time, you can get a hint about what kind of roommate they'll be just knowing their first name.

1. Hailey

Her dad pays her rent. She can't cook. Litters the kitchen with take out boxes from the local vegan joint.

2. Beth

Totally wants you to go to SoulCycle with her at 6 a.m. on a Saturday. Room is littered with leggings and sneakers.

3. Michelle

Comes home at 3 a.m. after a night of heavy drinking. Loudly makes some sort of frozen meal. Sleeps through her noon alarm.

4. Victoria

Probably has dark hair and an acoustic guitar. Keeps pretty much to herself. Does homework in the living room at obscure hours.

5. Madison

Was on the dance team in high school and has not stopped telling you about how great it was. Does work out videos on the TV in the living room.

6. Kim

Brings her boyfriend over every night of the week. Brings different boys home on the weekends.

7. Megan

Actively avoids cleaning the bathroom. Leaves her dishes in the sink. You haven't seen her shower in four days.

8. Erica

Normal. Quiet. Wants to be a high school English teacher.

9. Erika

Wild. Emotionally distraught always. Is always hosting the pre-game. Never comes home with all of the clothes she left wearing.

10. Sarah

"Definitely should have got into Harvard, but I ended up here instead." Too into trying to get a 4.0 to pay attention to you.

11. Julia

Studies music performance. Screams expletives at her keyboard. Cannot play the trumpet, but still tries really hard.

12. Hannah

So tall she almost hits her head on the doorways. Plays basketball. Raps to old Kanye in the shower.

13. Jenny

Should not be allowed to go out. Goes out every weekend anyway. Throws up in your bathtub and doesn't always address it in the morning.

14. Heather

Stressing about her internship. Is currently failing all of her classes. Will somehow still get a 3.5 GPA this semester.

15. Grace

You never see her, only the hairballs she leaves all around your place.

16. Emma

Only has guy friends because "it's easier." Guy friends who leave empty beer cans out after every sporting event on TV.

17. Caitlyn

Has a 4.0 as a biology major. Is going to med school. Sterilizes her room, the bathroom and the kitchen sink every four hours.

18. Sam

Always has a paper about feminism to write. Rosie the Riveter poster in her room.

19. Alex

Is probably dating her boss. Has straight Ds in all her classes.

20. Taylor

Is somehow always home when you're home. You know nothing about her other than where she's from.

21. Alyssa

Trying to become the next big YouTuber. Has lighting equipment all over the place. You constantly hear the phrase, "Hey guys, welcome to my channel!" She squealed because yesterday she hit 25 subscribers.

22. Jesse

Is probably plotting your murder. Lurks around like a cat.

Cover Image Credit: Morgan Yates//YouTube

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11 Things To Look Forward To After Finals

Need some motivation to push through finals?
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It’s nearly that time when the library is packed and the stores are running out of coffee. That’s right, finals week is approaching! Finals are not fun, but finals week getting closer means that Summer break is also getting closer! Here are 10 things to look forward to after finals to help get you through them!

1. No more homework!

I know that one of the many stressful things about finals is the homework that’s assigned right before. Finals are stressful by themselves, so it’s never fun when professors assign homework that’s due the week before the final or even the week of sometimes. But, I remind myself that after that one last week of finals, I won’t have to worry about any homework at all.

2. Having time to eat

Days spent studying for finals are some of the longest days of the year in my opinion. Sometimes I’ll leave in the morning to go to class and the library to study, and I won’t get back home until late that night. By the time I get home, I don’t have a ton of energy to make anything extravagant for dinner. Just thinking about how I’ll actually have time to eat real meals after finals is a motivator to get them done!

3. Swimming

Besides the people who don’t like hot weather, who doesn’t look forward to Summer because of the outdoor activity-friendly weather? Swimming was always one of the main things that I looked forward to about summer when I was little, and it’s still something that I’m excited for. Whether I’m going on vacation or not, the end of finals means the beginning of being able to go swimming!


4. Getting more hours at work

I know working over the summer isn’t necessarily a highlight of the break, but finals being over with means no more having to work around your class schedule. No more finals means more hours, and more hours means more money to do other fun things over the summer!

5. Change of scenery

Living on campus is fun and exciting, but sometimes a change of scenery is nice. Especially if you live in dorms, getting finals done means no more living in a cube!


6. Seeing family

I don’t know anyone in college who hasn’t gotten even just a little bit homesick at least once. The sooner I’m done with finals, the sooner I get to see my mom and my dog!

7. Getting to see friends outside of college

I love my friends that I met at college, but I’m still close with a couple that I knew before college. Finals week coming to an end means a summer catching up and spending time with old friends is coming to a beginning!


8. Ice cream (and other frozen treats)

When I was younger and people would ask me what my favorite food was, I would say ice cream. Although it might not be my favorite food anymore, it’s definitely in my top 10. Second-semester finals being over with officially marks the beginning of nice enough weather to eat ice cream, or slushies/other frozen treats, without getting cold (or without it dripping onto the study guide you’re cramming the day before the final).

9. Time to travel

I don’t know how many people who have time to travel during the school year, but it’s probably not very high. Finals wrapping up means no more class, and no more class means more free time! Even if it’s just a weekend trip, not having to worry about a class on Monday can make it a lot more fun.


10. Watching Netflix without feeling guilty

I don’t know how many times that I watch Netflix and tell myself that I’ll stop to study after the episode I’m on, and then the next thing I know it’s multiple episodes later. After finals are done, no more feeling bad for binge-watching your favorite shows!


11. Actually having free time

One of the things that I'm looking forward to the most about being done with finals is actually having some free time. Finals week is full of cramming and studying, but just the thought of having some time to sit back and relax makes it all worth it!

Those are just some of the things to look forward to after finals!

Cover Image Credit: Karen Ketay

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